Ancient Mesopotamia 101 | National Geographic

(gentle tune) – [Narrator] The story of writing, astronomy, and legislation. The story of civilizationitself starts in a single place. No longer Egypt, now not Greece, not Rome. However Mesopotamia. Mesopotamia is anexceedingly fertile undeniable based between the Tigrisand the Euphrates Rivers. For 5 millennia,the small strip of land centered in what is todayIraq, Kuwait and Syria fostered improvements thatwould trade the world eternally. Inhabited for just about 12,000 years, Mesopotamia’s steady local weather, rich soil and steady provide offresh water made it ideal for agriculture to increase and thrive. About 6,000 years ago,reputedly overnight, a few of these agriculturalsettlements blossomed into one of the vital world’s first cities. In the interval between 4,000 and three,100 BC, Mesopotamia was once dottedwith a constellation of competing metropolis states. At one factor, they had been unified under the Akkadian Empire after which broke apart forming the empires ofAssyria and Babylon. Regardless of near constant war, innovation and developmentthrived in historical Mesopotamia. They constructed on a monumental scale from palaces to ziggurats, big temples served as ritual locations to commune with the gods.In addition they developed advanced mathematics, together with a base 60 procedure that created a 60-2nd minute, a 60-minute hour and a 360-measure circular angle. The Babylonians usedtheir subtle system of mathematics to map and be trained the sky. They divided one earthyear into 12 periods. Each was once named after themost prominent constellations within the heavens, a traditionlater adopted by the Greeks to create the zodiac. They also divided theweek into seven days, naming every after their seven gods embodied through the sevenobservable planets within the sky. However perhaps essentially the most impactfulinnovation to return out of Mesopotamia is literacy. What commenced as easy picturesscrawled onto moist clay to preserve track of goods and wealth developed into asophisticated writing process by way of the yr 3,200 BC. This writing process wouldcome to be known as cuneiform in ultra-modern times andproved so flexible that over the span of 3,000years, it would be adapted for over a dozen distinctive primary languages and numerous uses together with recording the legislation of theBabylonian king Hammurabi, which formed the groundwork of astandardized justice approach.But Mesopotamia’s successbecame its undoing. Babylon in particularproved too rich a state to withstand external envy. In 539 BC, the Persian kingCyrus conquered Babylon and sealed his control overthe entirety of Mesopotamia. For centuries, thisarea became a territory of overseas empires. Finally, Mesopotamiawould fade like its kings into the mists of historical past. And its cities would sinkbeneath the sands of Iraq. But its suggestions wouldprevail in literacy, legislation, math, astronomy and thegift of civilization itself..

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