Caesar ⚔️ Second Invasion of Britain, 54 BC

Caesar’s first voyage to Britain in 55 BC did not accomplish much in military terms. Tactically, he was able to defeat the British, but strategically he did not achieve any long-term goals. His first expedition can be considered a bold work, but a year later he was determined to leave his mark on the island and make the indigenous people feel the power of Rome. After several months of intense work by his armies, who were tasked with building and designing the best ships of the expedition, Caesar first cared for a rebellion from the Gallic leader, and in the early summer of 54 BC everything was poised for the second Roman invasion of Britain. This time he did not have to make any mistake. He told us that he had summoned the entire Gaala cavalry, as well as most tribal leaders, to avoid any kind of “fuss” in Gaul when he was absent. A large fleet of 800 ships with 5 hordes and 2,000 cavalry sailed to Britain. After long hours of kayaking, they finally reached the beach where they landed the previous year. But this time there was not a single warrior to attack them. Later, Caesar learned from a group of prisoners that the enemy withdrew inside the country, terrified by the size of the Roman fleet. After the camp was set up, 10 regiments and 300 cavalry left the escort mission, searching for the British to withdraw. He chased them for a few kilometers and finally confronted them at the hill fort near the river crossing. Caesar and his legions advanced decisively but were attacked by numerous enemy vehicles and cavalry. It seems that in this narrow area, the Romans were unable to steer A decisive blow to the British, and the British could not use their movement Very effectively The Romans nevertheless managed to repel enemy attacks and the indigenous people responded by adopting a guerrilla style, hiding themselves in the surrounding forest, in an attempt to harass the Romans and deter them from attacking the hill fort. The 7th Corps took the lead by forming a shield as a military plan as they advanced towards the fortified hill. By covering their comrades with this elaborate composition, those behind them were able to build a barricade they shipped, while at the same time removing the rest of the enemy from the forest. After long hours of continuous activity, Caesar prevented his men from chasing the enemy and ordered them to stand. The next day, time was not wasted and marched towards the fleeing British, but when His army emerged in front of their ass Breaking news from the coastal camp. The night before, a major storm destroyed most of his ships together and many were badly damaged. Caesar again decided to march to assess the situation in person. When the army reached the coast, Caesar saw something strange similar to what happened to his previous voyage. Most ships were damaged but could be repaired. This time he was not prepared to risk anything. With the help of some of the continent, many of his legions were tasked with dragging each ship to the shore and repairing it, and digging a continuous series of fortifications around it. Caesar admits that this solution was very difficult but necessary. After 10 days of continuous work, Caesar again set off with the same forces towards the area from which he had come. However, the British had already gathered in greater numbers under the leadership of a man named Kaisflonius, the leader of the post-Thames kingdom, trusted by local tribes for their leadership against the Romans. During a series of skirmishes between Roman infantry and cavalry, the latter prevailed and managed to drive them out of the area. Caesar’s army stopped and began to set up camp for the march. But while armies were busy building fortifications, the British took them by surprise, rushing out of the forest and attacking the regiments operating in front of the camp. This time, the indigenous people were determined and their attack overcame two battalions of Romans. Caesar eventually took control of the situation but after considerable losses. This method of rapid warfare was unsuitable for heavy Roman infantry and Caesar knew this. The next day while Caesar’s legions were looting supplies, the British ambushed them. The legions held firm and when the Roman cavalry responded, the indigenous people retreated. The cavalry of Caesar, encouraged by the legionaries who were chasing the retreating enemy, did not stop pursuing them. When Caesar realized that Cassivalon was not ready to give him a decisive battle, he immediately changed his strategy and decided to march against the leader’s territory. The Roman army arrived at the Thames for the first time in its history, but the area was heavily guarded, with wooden sticks blocking the road above and below the surface of the river. As the enemy massed on the river bank, Caesar ordered his armies and cavalry to move forward. The joint attack proved difficult to confront by the British and could not withstand it. They soon abandoned their positions and fled. After this clash, Kasipalonius realized that he could not defeat the Romans in a fierce battle and returned to guerrilla tactics. Caesar told us that his enemy had fewer than 4,000 vehicles at that point and that many of his army men were killed. While the Romans marched in the territory of Cassifelonos, he would hide his army in Dense areas of trees to attack isolated battalions, so Caesar ordered them By staying close to the main body of the army and adopted the policy of the scorched earth by burning and looting the territory of Cassifelonos. While the legions were pushing deep into enemy territory, suddenly, Mandoprasius, One of the leaders of a powerful local tribe, Trinopantis, oppressed by Cassifelonos, They approached Caesar and offered to help him in exchange for his protection from the British coalition leader. Caesar agreed, and when the news of this meeting became known to the local population, more tribes approached him and surrendered to him. It seems that the tide turned against Casivalonos. From those embassies, Caesar obtained important intelligence on the status of his enemy. It was learned that the main base of Casifellonos was hidden deep in the forest and was admirably fortified, and was tightly equipped to continue the prolonged siege. Certainly, when Caesar approached the designated area, he found the stronghold of Casifellonos fortified behind the deep forests and garages. Caesar was likely confident that his followers could strike any kind of British resistance because he remained enthusiastic about defensive positions and ordered his army to launch a frontal attack from both sides. As correctly predicted, the defenders could not withstand the Roman charge and retreated to the other side of their fortifications after suffering a large number of victims during their journey. The status of Casivalonus became hopeless. When he was besieged, he took his final position and devised a new blueprint against the Romans. He sent secret letters to his allies, the four kings who ruled close to The coastal area of Kent, where the Romanian coastal camp and all their ships are stationed, urged them to gather all their troops and attack the Romans who outnumber them. In this way, a new army of British was created out of nowhere, and attacked the sensitive Tsar’s back. Large-scale Roman fortifications were crucial and the scattering of the indigenous population after a surprise attack by the legionists who were defending the walls and many of their men were either captured or slaughtered. When the news of this defeat came to Casseville, he had no choice but to seek peace. Caesar had already decided that he would not spend the winter on the island, where there were rumors about the outbreak of the Gaul revolution, so he agreed to the conditions. Cassipalionus had to provide the hostages and not wage war against Mandopracius, and an annual tribute had to be paid to the “Roman people”. With the crushing of the armed resistance of the indigenous population and as the campaign season neared, Caesar gathered his legions and returned to the coastal camp. When his army reached the shore, he found that most of the ships had been repaired, but because of the large number of hostages and the few irreparable ships, they could not contain everyone, so he decided to move half of the army in two stages. When the troops departed, Caesar decided to stay with the rest of the troops until the ships made a second voyage to the continent. But once again the English channel proved unpredictable for the Romans and most ships were unable to make a return trip to the island in time, due to poor weather conditions. As winter approached, Caesar was in danger of being besieged on the island with very little supplies and only half of his troops. He unloaded the remaining damaged ships with the remaining troops and the hostages, and embarked on a return journey to Gaul in late September. The military objectives of Caesar’s missions remain unclear. Although he reached an agreement with the British, he left no soldiers on the island to enforce his agreement. He will never return. But Caesar achieved one thing. He became the first Roman general to arrive in Britain. Translated by Ahmed Gassama .

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