Church History: Complete Documentary AD 33 to Present

33ad forty days after his resurrection Jesus Christ ascends into heaven heleaves behind eleven apostles commissioning them to make disciples ofall nations baptizing them in the name of the Father and of the Son and of theHoly Spirit there were only 500 disciples in the world all of themlocated in the remote riman province of Judea this is the story of how thegospel spread from five hundred disciples in Jerusalem to the wholeworld nine days after the Ascension the day of Pentecost the Twelve Apostles arepraying together with Mary the mother of Jesussuddenly the Holy Spirit descends upon them and Peter preaches to the people ofJerusalem three thousand people are converted the church is born people fromall across the known world are present in Jerusalem to hear Peters speech inacts 8 Philip while in Gaza shares the gospel with the eunuch of the royalcourt of Ethiopia the eunuch believes the gospel and is baptized he returns toEthiopia to spread the good news Philip continues his preaching in Caesareamaritima on the Mediterranean coast in Acts 11 persecuted disciples inJerusalem flee as far as Phoenicia Cyprus and Antioch where they spread thegospel Antioch is the third largest city in the Roman Empire after Rome andAlexandria in acts 13 and 14 Paul and Barnabusspread the gospel in Cyprus Pamphylia and southern Galatia following theCouncil of Jerusalem in acts 15 Paul sets out on his second missionaryjourney from Antioch preaching the gospel in his native Silesia beforemoving on to Macedonia and Greece on his return home he visits Ephesus thelargest city in the Roman province of Asia in modern-day Turkey and the fourthlargest city in the Roman Empire in acts 18 to 21 Paul sets out from Antioch tovisit the churches he had established across Galatia Asia Macedonia and Greecebefore returning to Jerusalem in acts 27 Paul has taken under guard by Romansoldiers from Judea to Rome after leaving Crete the ship has lost to astorm but miraculously lands of Malta in acts 28 from where Paul makes his finaljourney to Rome the narrative history of the Bible ends in acts 28 with Paulteaching the faith in Rome tradition tells us of the journeys of the otherapostles st.James the older brother of John the Evangelist preaches the gospelin Spain he returns to Jerusalem where in acts 12 is run through with the swordby Herod Agrippa Philip spritz the gospel in Asia wherehe is crucified upside down Bartholomew travels to India after sharing thegospel there he travels to the kingdom of Armenia the location of Mount Araratwhere he is skinned alive and beheaded Thomas who doubted the resurrection ofJesus preaches in the kingdoms of Austria and Armenia before traveling toIndia where he preaches in Punjab and mylapore he is stabbed to death by Hindupriests near Madras Mathew stays in Palestine where he writes his gospel inHebrew he eventually moves to Ethiopia where he is martyred Simon and Judepreach in Tessa Fong capsule of the Parthian Empire where they are said toconverse 60,000 believers before returning to sue an air modern-dayBeirut in Syria where they are martyred Matthias who was chosen to replace theapostle Judas evangelizes Armenia and the north shore of the Black Seahe returns to Jerusalem and is stoned to death st.James the just stays inJerusalem and prays in the temple every day finally an angry mob throws him offthe top of the temple and stones and clubs him to death shortly thereafterJerusalem revolts against the Roman Empire the armies of Vespasian march onJerusalem and completely destroy it including the temple in 70 ADAndrew the brother of Simon Peter spreads the gospel as far north asCrimea and present-day Ukraine before preaching in Byzantium present-dayConstantinople and finally arriving in the city of Patras in the province ofakia present-day Greece where he is crucified on an axe shaped cross as hedeemed himself unworthy to be crucified on the same type of cross as Jesus SimonPeter leaves Jerusalem following the council in acts 15 and becomes the firstBishop of Antioch where he stays for eight yearshe then preaches in Asia before arriving in Rome Simon Magus who in acts 8 hadattempted to buy the gift of laying on hands follows Peter and his travelsacross the world performing magic tricks to convince people that he not Jesus isthe true Savior Simon Magus teaches his followers that he is the true God whohad revealed himself as the Father in Samaria the son in Judea and now theHoly Spirit to the Gentiles Simon Magus becomes known as the father of allheretics those who try to lead the faithful astray from the sound teachingof Simon Peter Simon Magus also taught that his followers would be saved bygrace alone without the need for good works because in his teaching thedesignation of works as good or bad was an arbitrary construct invented byfallen angels at Rome Simon Peter and Simon Magus are brought before EmperorNero while the Apostle Paul prays for Simon Peter Simon Magus performs a magictrick where his lifted into the air by demonshowever Simon Peter commands the demons to release him and Simon Magus falls tohis death Simon Peter sends his disciple markedthe Evangelist to Alexandria Egypt the second-largest city in the world markbecomes Alexandria’s first bishop emperor nero blames christians for theGreat Fire of Rome in the year 64 and slaughters the Christians in Rome theApostles Peter and Paul are martyred Peter is crucified upside down onVatican Hill because he deems himself unworthy to be crucified in the samemanner as Jesus Saint John the Evangelistis thrown into a cauldron of boiling oil in Rome but is unharmed he is thenbanished to the island of Patmos where he receives the vision of Revelationafter he is released from exile Saint John resides in Ephesus his last wordsare said to be little children loved one anotherthe Apostles established churches throughout the Mediterranean world ledby the three patron C’s of Rome Alexandria and Antioch from these seasmissionaries spread the gospel to the whole world Carthage in North Africaalong with Gaul and England were converted by missionaries from Romeafter the Apostles died their disciples known as the Apostolic fathers continueto lead the church around the Year 90 hope Clement the first of Rome writes tothe Church of Corinth rebuking certain instigators who had rebelled against thechurch’s presbytery sheis patriarch of Antioch is condemned to be fed to beastsin the Colosseum in Rome early in the second century on his journey he writesletters to churches throughout the Mediterranean encouraging them in thefaith Saint Polycarp Bishop of Smyrna in Asia near Ephesus was a disciple of st.John the Evangelist he was cast into a fire in 155 when the fire failed to harmhim he was run through with a sword the second century would see the successorsof the Apostles seek not only to justify Christianity against arguments from askeptical Greek world but also rebuked heretics who sought to teach a distortedtwisted version of the gospel valentines attempted to lead astray thechurches at Alexandria and Rome Valentine is taught that only hisdisciples he received a special type of secret knowledge called gnosis wouldachieve true spiritual salvation Marcion came to Rome shortly afterValentinus and attempted to persuade Christians that the God of the OldTestament was not the same as the god of the New Testament Marcy and taught thatthe God of the Old Testament was an evil being called the Demiurge and that theDemiurge had created the physical world as a prison for souls who’d fallen fromthe pure spiritual world Marcion taught that the true God hadsent an enlightened spirit Jesus Christ in the appearance of a human to rescuefallen Souls from the corrupt physical world and lead them into a purenon-physical spiritual world the teaching that Jesus was a divine spiritwithout a real human body became known as docetism Justin Martyr was born inSamaria after studying philosophy he was converted to Christianity by an old manalong the seashore he then traveled through Asia answeringobjections to Christianity raised by Jews and Greeks and refuting theteachings of Marcion he finally came to Rome why during the reign of MarcusAurelius he was denounced by cynic philosopher Christians Justin wasbeheaded in Rome in the year 168 Eirene es of leon was a disciple ofPolycarp who had been taught directly by Saint John the Evangelistafter learning the fate from Polycarp Irene EOS traveled from Asia to Gaulwhere he became Bishop of Leon he wrote a grand treatise against theagnostic system of Valentinus against heresies which is still preserved tothis day the three largest cities in the Roman Empire were Rome Alexandria andAntioch these cities had authority over their Patriarchate’s which in the caseof Rome included all of the Western Roman Empire Italy Africa Illyricum andakia Alexandria had authority over Egypt and Antioch had authority over churchesin the Middle East the bishops of Rome and Alexandria took the title of Popewhile the Bishop of Antioch took the title of patriarch these bishops basedtheir authority on direct succession from the Apostle Peter who was bishop atAntioch for eight years sent his disciple Mark the Evangelist toAlexandria as its first bishop and finally gave his life for the faith inRome administration of church governance was further subdivided among large ofregional cities the bishops of the largest cities were called xyx while thebishops of smaller regional cities were called metropolitans you had supervisionover bishops in their surrounding areas in the late second century in Phrygia arecent convert to christianity named montanus started a new movementemphasizing ecstasy’s and continued revelation from the Holy Spirit the newprophecy movement spreads throughout the church many bishops condemned themovement but there was not a formal church wide condemnation one of the first early feuds within thechurch was quartered ecumenism in asia the followers of Saint John theEvangelist celebrated Easter on the 14th of the Jewish month of Nisan regardlessof the day of the week while the rest of the church celebrated Easter on Sundayafter the church in Asia refused to change to celebrating Easter on Sundaypo perfected the first threatened to excommunicate them but Arrhenius who wasfrom Asia intervened and asked Viktor to show leniency in time the court owedecumene practice died out and the entire church came to celebrate Easter onSunday around the Year 190 the auditors of Byzantium introduced the heresy knownas adoptionism the teaching that Jesus was born a mere man and was lateradopted by God as his son Theo Titus was excommunicated by perfect – the first inthe late 2nd century clement of alexandria began studying philosophy andchristianity in greece in cappadocia before traveling to alexandria where hewrote extensively and taught his student Origen Clements writings are consideredcontroversial because they went beyond established Christian orthodoxyfor example clement believed that matter was eternal and not created by god earlyin the third century sibelius introduced the heresy of modalism teaching that thefather and the Son and the Holy Spirit was simply manifestations of God indifferent places and times this is also known as Patrick passion ISM theteaching that the father suffered on the cross Sibelius was excommunicated forheresy by Pope Calixtus the first in the year 220Hippolytus was a disciple of Arrhenius and wrote the philosophy meaner therefutation of all heresies against the writings of valentines Martian andother heretics he was considered one of the greatest theologians of Rome andexpected to become Pope however zephyr eNOS was elected Popeinstead and Hippolytus refused to accept the result becoming one of the firstanti-popes Hippolytus and polk puncheon were later both exiled by emperor maxhim in a Strax to the mines of Sardinia where they reconciled and died togetheras martyrs Tertullian lived in Carthage and was one of the first theologians towrite extensively in Latin he is also one of the first Christians to use theterm Trinity Tertullian was an apologist and wroteextensively against Gnosticism in the latter part of his life he is said tohave joined the montanus Origen was a student of Clement of Alexandria andwrote extensively from Alexandria he developed an allegorical interpretationof Scripture and his speculative theology wandered beyond the limits ofOrthodoxy teaching the pre-existence of souls and the subordination of got theson to God the Father around the Year 250 Santini preached the gospel in Pariswhere he was martyred Santini would later be honored as the patron saint ofFrance innovation was a scholarly theologian inthe Roman Church and expected to be elected Pope to his surprise Corneliuswas elected pope Novation refused to accept the results and wrote to all thechurches of the world claiming that he was the rightful pope his followersthroughout the world became known as Novation as’ and were known for theirextreme rigor ISM refusing to allow Christians who are pasta sized duringthe dekyon persecution to return to the church and even taking the extremeposition that any Christian who committed a mortal sin could not returnto the church Cyprien Bishop of Carthage found himselfin the middle of controversies over how to admit apostates and heretics to thechurch Cyprien took the position that heretics needed to be rebaptised uponjoining the church but was rebuked by Pope Stephen the first Cyprian grewquarrelsome of this exchanging angry letters against Pope Stephen withfamiliy on Bishop of Caesarea in Cappadocia Pope Stephen threatened4,000,000 with excommunication for refusing to adopt the Roman doctrineprohibiting second baptism however Pope dionysius the first of alexandriaintervened and convinced Stephen to show leniency in the late 250 s a newpersecution broke out under Emperor valerian Pope Stephen and his successorPope Sixtus ii were martyred Cyprian was martyred in kerubim aden Kober his lastwords were thanks be to God Paul of sama SATA was Bishop of Antiochfrom the years 262 268 Paul taught the adoption astera C and was condemned by acouncil in Antioch led by familiy on of Caesarea and sanctioned by PopeDionysius of Alexandria the decision of the council was ratified by Pope DinahCS of Rome and again by Pope Felix the firstin the middle of the first century in Tessa Fong capital of the SassanidEmpire in Persia the Jewish Christian Gnostic named money began teaching a newreligion that he synthesized from Gnostic Christianity Buddhism andZoroastrianism although mani died while imprisoned bythe Zoroastrian rulers of the Sassanid Empire his new religion spreadincredibly fast reaching Rome as early as the air 280 even Augustine of Hippowas a Manichaean before he converted to Christianity menurkey ISM was intenselypersecuted and died out in Europe by the sixth century although in parts ofCentral Asia is survived as late as the 14th century many neoclassic movementsthroughout history such as the Cathars of southern europe in the 12th through14th centuries were based on manikyam the 4th century began with the worldwidepersecution of the church by emperor diocletian the final and bloodiest often great Roman persecutions of the church the persecution came to an endwith the edicts of toleration in the years 311 and 313 under Emperor’sGalerius and then Constantine Constantine converted to Christianitybut did not make Christianity the state-mandated religion early in the 4thcentury a priest in Alexandria named arias began to teach that Jesus prior tothe Incarnation was a created being less than God the Father this produced greatcontroversy throughout the church although arias was exiled by popes Peterand Alexander of Alexandria Bishop Eusebius of Nicomedia championed theteachings of arias at the imperial court of emperor constantineEmperor Constantine summoned the Council of Nicaea in 325 to settle the Ariancontroversy and other issues in the church bishop Josias of cordoba in spainrepresented pope sylvester the first as papal legate and presided over thecouncil according to Athanasius Josias wrote thenicene creed that was adopted by the council and established the doctrinethat the father and the son were consubstantial having the same undividedsubstance or essence the council of nicaea also confirmed the hierarchy ofchurch governance in which Rome Alexandria and Antioch were acknowledgedas the highest C’s in the church following the council Bishop Eusebius ofNicomedia and arias were banished by Emperor Constantine however Eusebius wasa skilled politician and quickly rihwan the Emperor’s favorConstantine brought Eusebius back from exile and made youcbs his chiefreligious advisor at the request of Eusebius constantine began deposingbishops who upheld the orthodox Nicene faith including eustathius of antioch in330 and Athanasius of Alexandria in 335 Constantine’s successor in the EasternEmpire Constantius ii supported Arianism andmade Eusebius bishop of the new imperial capital Constantinople in the year 339Constantius was a committed Arian and opposed bishops who adhere to the NiceneCreed these bishops fled to the protection of Pope Julius the first inRome who restored them to their seas in 350 Emperor Constantius became soleEmperor and suppressed the church in Rome banishing Pope liberius for twoyears consent his successor in the east Valens continued to support Arianismwolf Ellis the Daath who studied Christianity in Cappadocia was sent byEusebius of Nicomedia to teach the Arian faith to the Gothic tribes of Europewill Phyllis successfully converted the Goths to Arianism and became theirBishop wolf alas also translated the Bible into Gothic and developed theGothic alphabet wolf Phyllis wrote an Arian Creed whichdeclared that the Holy Spirit was not God that the Holy Spirit was subject andobedient in all things to the Sun and that the Sun was subject and obedient inall things to the father at the third Council of sirmium in 357 a Council ofthe church rejected the Nicene Creed declared that the father and the sonwere not come substantial and in fact that the father was greater than the sonPope liberius of Rome was exiled for refusing to accept the Arian doctrinealthough he was released two years later and continued to uphold the OrthodoxNicene faith in the year 330 eustathius patriarch of antioch a staunch supporterof the Nicene Creed was deposed at the request of Eusebius of Nicomediain the following decades the emperor would continue to appoint Arian bishopsiver antioch while Orthodox Christians in the city became divided between thesuccesses of poor Lynas the north adopts Nicene christian and malicious whoseinitial position was not clear but who taught orthodox nice in christianity bythe end of his life supporting gregory of nazianzus and presiding over thefirst council of constantinople in the year 381 it took until early in thefifth century for the followers of poor linus to accept the successors ofmalicious Arianism continued to flourish until Emperor Theodosius ascended theimperial throne in the year 379 Theodosius expelled the Arian Bishop ofConstantinople an appointed gregory nazianzen leader of a small group oforthodox Nicene Christians Bishop of Constantinople the city’s Arian populacerioted in protest in 380 Theodosius issued the Edict ofThessalonica which commanded the entire Roman Empire to submit to the OrthodoxChristian faith the some Pisa had taught to the Romans and there had beenfaithfully preserved by Pope Damasus of Rome and Pope Peter of AlexandriaEmperor Theodosius subsequently made Arianism illegal throughout the empireat the Council of Constantinople 150 bishops all from the east ratified theOrthodox Nicene faith and rebuked the heresies of new matter mechanism theteaching that the Holy Spirit was less than the father and the son andapolinaria nism the teaching that the highest part of the soul of Jesus wasreplaced by the divine logos however her Pauline Arian writers had written manyforgeries under the names of Orthodox fathers such as Athanasius whichincluded stainless to the effect that Jesus had one nature one energy and onewill malicious of Antioch died while presiding over the council the Councilof Constantinople without the consent of the churches of Rome and Alexandriaelevated Constantinople to the second highest sea in the church after Romebased on its status as the new capital of the Empire the attempt byconstantinople to elevate itself over Alexandria and Antioch would produceinfighting between Constantinople Alexandria and Antioch in the comingdecades that eventually led to all-out schismthe fifth-century began with conflict between the Seas of ConstantinopleAlexandria and Antioch st.John Chrysostom a priest from Antioch wasnamed Bishop of Constantinople in 403 Theophilus Pope of Alexandria fearedantiox influence over the imperial court at Constantinople and sought to deposeChris system although Theophilus was initially unsuccessful Chrysostomeventually lost favour with the Empress and was deposed and exiled he appealedfor help from Pope Innocent the first in Rome who excommunicated the officials ofConstantinople for their treatment of Chrysostom Chrysostom died in exilemeanwhile the Western Empire was collapsing and Rome was sacked by theArian Visigoths in 410 the Visigoths then relocated to Spain during this timest.Agustin Bishop of Hippo led the Church in Africa the g’sten combated theDonatists whose similar to the Novation as’ challenged the right of apostates toadminister sacraments as well as Pelagians who asserted that thesacraments were not necessary for people who were strong enough to live a holylife through their own effort in addition the bishops of Africa becameincreasingly frustrated by appeals from their subjects to the Pope in Rome andforbade this practice at the Council of Carthage in 419 this quarrel culminatedin the optimist in 426 a letter written by the African bishops to Pope Celestinethe first in which they angrily objected to the Pope interfering in the judicialdiscipline of the churches in Africa the quarrel was brought to an end by theconquest of North Africa by the Vandals in the years 429 to 439 the Vandals wereArian and oppressed the local Catholics st. Augustine died during the siege ofHippo by the Vandals in the year 430 the feud between ConstantinopleAlexandria and Antioch resumed with the appointment of Nestorius a priest fromAntioch to the bishopric of Constantinople in 428 nestorius was froma theological School in Antioch that emphasized the humanity of Christ andsought to explain how the human Jesus became united to the divine logosChristians in this time were honoring Mary as the Theotokos the mother of Godbut Nestorian opposed this practice saying that Mary was merely the motherof Christ Nestorius was accused of heresy by pope cyril of alexandria cyrilreceived approval from pope celestine in rome to depose Nestorius at the Councilof Ephesus in 431 patriarch John the first of Antioch no doubt perturbed thatAlexandria was deposing an Antiochian Bishop of Constantinople for the secondtime in 30 years our first refused to accept the councilsetting up his own rival council however John eventually relented and agreed tothe deposition of Nestorius Saint Cyril of Alexandria is writings on theNestorian controversy became widely celebrated throughout the Eastern Churchincluding in the region of Antioch the followers of historia sat firstcongregated around the school of Odessa but in 489 were forced by ByzantineEmperor Zeno to flee to the Sassanid Empire in Persia the Sassanid Empire washappy to tolerate Christians in his borders as long as they were in schismwith the religion of his primary enemy the Byzantine Empire and so the Churchof these became Nestorian and spread as far east as china in the followingcenturies st.Patrick was raised in Roman occupied England but at the age of14 was kidnapped by Irish Raiders and forced into slavery as a shepherd st.Patrick escaped Ireland and entered a monastery in Gaul eventually returningto Ireland and converting the Irish to Christianity in his writings st. Cyrilof Alexandria had quoted an appalling Aryan forgery that asserted that Jesushad one nature mere thesis his successor Pope Deus chorus of Alexandria believedthis to be the historic teaching of the church Deus chorus saw a thirdopportunity for Alexandria to deposed theof Constantinople when Bishop Flavian condemned the monk you turkeys forteaching that Jesus had one nature you turkeys and Flavian both appealed toPope Leo the first of Rome meanwhile deus chorus 1 the heir of emperortheodosius ii who allowed dears chorus and bishop Juvenal of jerusalem toconvene the rubber Council of Ephesus in 449 wished opposed both Flavian and PopeLeo Emperor Theodosius died within a year and the new emperor Marcion wasloyal to Pope Leo Leo called for a new council and wrote the famous Leo’s tomewhich set forth the Orthodox doctrine of Christology that the church is upheld tothe present day their hippest at a union Jesus is one person with two naturesfully God and fully man – perfect natures without confusionwithout mixture with our separation without change in one person the councilof chalcedon accepted Leo’s tome in 451 and opposeddeus chorus the tension between ConstantinopleAlexandria and Antioch erupted into al-rai schism following the Council ofChalcedon in addition to the mere facade controversy the council of chalcedon hadattempted to make several important changes in church governance first inexchange for bishop juvenile of jerusalem returning to the Catholicfaith Jerusalem was elevated to a Patriarchate with Palestine removed fromthe patriarchate of antioch next the council of chalcedon made Constantinoplethe final Court of Appeal for bishops in the east an elevated Constantinople to aPatriarchate over the regions of Thrace Asia and pontus most importantly theCouncil of Chalcedon attempted to make Constantinople the second highest C inthe church above Alexandria and Antioch just as the Council of Constantinoplehad tried to do 70 years earlier Pope Leo was outraged that Constantinople hadupset the hierarchy of the established Petra in seas of RomeAlexandria and Antioch that had been fixed by the Council of Nicaea herefused to accept the proposed changes and rebuked bishop Anatoly ofConstantinople for using the myocyte controversy as an excuse to usurp powerthe people of Alexandria were even more outraged the council of chalcedon hadbanished their Pope pious chorus and installed Proteus as bishop an angry mobin Alexandria killed Pretorius and installed Timothy a zealous Mayaphysique as Pope of Alexandria in Syria and Palestine kalsa don was rejected bythe local people the first great schism in the church had begun the people ofEgypt in Syria cops and syria’s formed the OrientalOrthodox Communion and were continued to the present day to elect their own mayorphysic patriarchs in opposition to the Imperial Melkite patriarchs appointed bythe Emperor from Constantinople at the time of kalsa Don Attila the Hunconquered Central Europe and was poised to sack Rome but Pope Leo rode out tomeet them and persuaded Attila to spare the city meanwhile the Vandalsaggressively conquered the western half of the Mediterranean capturing SicilySardinia and Corsica in 455 the Vandals sacked Rome the second psyching in 45years although Pope Leo persuaded them tospare the city’s inhabitants in the last great joint military campaign of thewestern and eastern Roman Empire a massive Armada of Byzantine and Romanships was destroyed by the Vandals at the Battle of Cartagena in 468 theByzantine Empire was left bankrupt and the Western Empire was deprived of itssource of grain from Africa in 471 Peter the fuller Maya physik patriarch ofAntioch introduced the Nicene Creed as modified by the Council ofConstantinople in 381 into the liturgy at Antioch in protest of the Council ofChalcedon although the Creed was originally used in this way to protestthe Council of Chalcedon its use in liturgy spread throughout thechurch and by the 11th century was used by the Church of Rome in 480 toByzantine Emperor Zeno attempted a plaque aids the Maya facade factions inAlexandria and Antioch by issuing a statement of faith called the hinata-kunwhich approved the writings of cyril of alexandria but did not mention thecouncil of chalcedon or leo’s tome Pope Felix the 3rd of Rome condemned thehinata con but bishops Acacia of ConstantinoplePeter the fuller of Antioch and Peter mungus of Alexandria accepted itPope Felix therefore excommunicated all three of them beginning vacation aschism that would last until 519 Felix is often quoted as saying not to opposeerror is to approve it and not to defend truth is to suppress it and indeed toneglect confound evil men where we can do it is no less a sin than to encouragethem in 476 the last Western Roman EmperorRomulus Augustus was overthrown by his general podracer who established thekingdom of italy in 493 Theodoric the great and Aryan and king of theOstrogoths defeated and killed Otto ASA and established ostrogothic rule overItaly Otto aces final words were where is God 500 years after the birth ofJesus Orthodox Christianity was on the verge of extinction Aryan kingdoms hadconquered all of Europe Italy ghoul Spain and North Africa the ByzantineEmpire had rejected Leo’s tome and embraced my visit ISM Rome alone stoodfor the Orthodox Catholic faith surrounded on all sides by Aryans andmaya physics rome had been sacked twice in the past century and was now underthe rule of an aryan kingdom in the coming century Rome would be brought tothe brink of annihilation as the armies of Constantinople and the Ostrogothsdescended upon it but a new light began to shine in 508 when King Clovis thefirst of the franks was baptized as a Catholic the darkness receded further in519 when Byzantine Emperor Justin the first unable to maintain ecclesiasticalunion with Syria and Egypt sought reunion with Rome and compelled hisbishops to submit to the formula of pope or miss das which affirmed Leo’s tomeand declared that all who did not agree with the Bishop of Rome were not incommunion with the Catholic Church however the Maya physics in Syria andEgypt refused to accept the formula Leo’s tome or the council of chalcedon the Catholic Church finally brought anend to the Pelagian controversy at the Council of orange in 529 which condemnedsemi-pelagianism the doctrine the humans of their own effort without the help ofthe grace of God can come to faith in the desire for baptism in the East newByzantine Emperor Justinian the first began a campaign to recapture theWestern Empire beginning with the successful conquest of North Africa fromthe Vandals in 533 Justinian then sought to conquer Italy from the Ostrogoths hecaptured Rome in 536 ad the Ostrogoths counter attacked and besieged the cityin 538 and finally sacked the city in 546 the Byzantines retook the city butthe Ostrogoths sacked it a second time in 549 the Byzantines finally capturedRome for good in 552 the constant fighting left Rome almost completelydestroyed from a population of over a million people at the time of theApostles Peter and Paul the population of Rome fell to a mere 50,000Justinian’s ambitions were disrupted in 541 when plague broke out inConstantinople rapidly spreading across the Byzantine Empire 10,000 people a daydied in Constantinople Justinian himself was infected but survived the ByzantineEmpire was greatly weakened monasteries in Italy during this timewere frequently relaxed places where members of wealthy aristocratic familieslived a life of leisure st.Benedict attempted to change this by introducingthe rule of Saint Benedict which established a strict regimen of workprayer and study Benedict’s rule was so strict the one monastery attempted topoison him twice over the next five centuries the rule of st. Benedict wouldbecome the predominant rule of monastic life in Western Europe while theOstrogoths were besieging Rome in 545 Emperor Justinian brought Pope vigiliasts the first to Constantinople where he stayed at the Placidia Palace and wassafe from the constant fighting that was destroying Rome at ConstantinopleEmperor Justinian put pressure on Pope virgilius to condemn the three chapterscertain Nestorian writings from the previous century Justinian believedtheir condemnation would help bring reunion with the Maya Physics in Syriaand Egypt the writers of the three chapters had died in the previouscentury and two of the writers had been reconciled to the Church of the Councilof Chalcedon Pope virgilius was reluctant to posthumously condemn thesewriters but eventually consented to the condemnation issued by the fifthecumenical council in 553 in 555 three years after Rome had been safelyrestored to the Byzantine Empire Pope fidelia’s left Constantinople for Romebut died on the journey the Byzantine Empire was severely weakened by theplague and decades of fighting the Ostrogoths which allowed the germanicLombards to invade Italy in 568 the lombards conquered most of the peninsulaexcept for the exarchate of ravenna a narrow corridor from Ravenna the capitalto Rome the Byzantine Emperor continued to rule the exit of Ravenna and requiredhis consent to all elections of the Pope resulting in the era of the Byzantinepapacy in 587 King Riccar at the first of theVisigoths converted from Arianism to catholicism pope gregory the greatreigned from 590 to 604 he reformed the church and sent Michener’s throughoutEurope in 588 John the faster Bishop of Constantinople claimed the title ofecumenical Bishop or universal bishop but Pope Gregory refused to permit thetitle affirming papal supremacy and the rank of the three Petra in seas of RomeAlexandria and Antioch above Constantinople in the east the ByzantineEmpire faced a new threat as a migrating Troy from Asia the avars invaded theBalkans pagan Saxons had conquered England after the fall of the RomanEmpire Pope Gregory the Great sent a Gustin of Canterbury to evangelize theSaxons in England and Augustine became the first Archbishop of Canterbury inthe year 597 in 602 war erupted between the Byzantine Empire and the SassanidEmpire the Sassanid Empire gained early victories conquering Antioch in 613Jerusalem in 614 Anatolia in 617 and Alexandria in 618 however the ByzantineEmpire rallied under Emperor Heraclius and defeated the Sassanid Empire theBattle of Nineveh in 628 regaining all of his lost territoryin the year 633 Melkite patriarch cyrus of alexandria reached an agreement withthe coptic church that there is one energy or faculty of action in jesus thedoctrine of monophyletic ‘m the monks are Aeneas who had become patriarch ofJerusalem staunch the opposed monophyletic and protested to patriarchSergius of constantinople that there were two energies in Jesus died o’theelitism Sergius proposed to Pope Honorius the first in Rome that thechurch should prohibit the discussion of one or two energies altogether Sergiusmentioned as a side note that the doctrine of two energies might leadpeople to believe there are two contrary wills in Christ Pope Honorius wrote backagreeing with the proposal to prohibit the discussion of one or two energiesBern aureus also mentioned as a side note that Jesus has one will becausewhen Jesus assumed human nature Jesus assumed the nature we had before Adamsfall not our vitiated admirer tainted by original sin Hearne aureus personalsecretary successor Pope John the 4th and Maximus the Confessor defended thesestatements saying that an aureus had only denied the existence of a sinfulwill in Christ’s human nature not the existence of a human were all together meanwhile in Mesopotamia the arab-muslimrashidun caliphate had risen up against the Byzantine and sassanid empires tothe shock of both empires the Arabs defeated the combined forces of theSassanid and Byzantine empires in the Battle of Firoz in December 633 TessaFon the capital of the Sassanid Empire fell in March 637 in the same year therashidun caliphate captured both Antioch and Jerusalem with the borders of hisempire collapsing Emperor Heraclius was annoyed to find his bishops quarrelingover monitor let ISM own aureus Sergius and suffer Gnaeus all died in 638 andHeraclitus issued the AK thesis which prohibited discussion of one or twoenergies in Christ and affirmed that Jesus has only one will the Melkitepatriarchs of Constantinople Antioch who following the fall of Antioch to theSassanid Empire resided in Constantinople and Alexandria allaffirmed the egg thesis but Pope’s ever honest the first condemned the ex esisand affirmed that there are two energies and two wills in Jesus Christ human anddivine Alexandria fell to the rashidun caliphate in 641 Roman Constantinoplewere the only sees that remained in the Byzantine Empire they remained in schismfor the next 40 years meanwhile MIFA sites in Syria and Egypt welcomed therashidun caliphate as liberators and joined in the fight against theByzantine Empire eager to bring an end to the quarrel among his bishops EmperorConstance ii in 648 issued the typos which ordered the church to cease alldiscussion of one or two wills or energies in Jesus Pope Martin the firstrefused to comply and was seized by Byzantine troops and died in prisonafter refusing to renounce diethyl ette ism Maximus the Confessor leftConstantinople for Rome a he too was arrested and died in prison for refusingto renounce the earth elitism meanwhile the rashidun caliphate wasdivided in a civil war and replaced by the Umayyad Caliphate in 661 whichreached the outskirts of Carthage in 665 the Umayyad Caliphate conquered Anatoliaand besieged Constantinople from 674 to 678 the Byzantine Empire used Greek fireagainst the Umayyad Navy for the first time in recorded history to answer theByzantine empires troubles a new tribe from Central Asia the Bulgarians hadinvaded Thrace in 670 pressing as far as Thessalonica in Italy King aribert thefirst of the lombards converted from arianism to catholicism in 653 theLombard Kings remained firmly Catholic from the time of King Kirk turretbringing an end to the Arian rulers of the Germanic tribes in Europe finally in680 to 681 Emperor Constantine the 4th submitted to Pope Agharta the 1st andconvened the 6th ecumenical council which condemned moneth lets ‘m andaffirmed stifle it ism by this point the Maya physics in Egypt Syria andPalestine were no longer part of the Byzantine Empire and the Emperor hadlittle reason to continue compromising with them the 6th ecumenical councilcondemned Pope Honorius as a heretic for following patriarch Sergius but Pope Leoii changed the condemnation condemning an aureus for negligence rather thanheresy in 692 the Byzantine Empire held acouncil of eastern bishops in Constantinople the quinna sex councilalso known as the council in trullo which condemned certain practices in theWestern Church including the depiction of Jesus as a lambwhen Pope Sergius the first refused to accept the council Emperor Justinian theseconds and soldiers to arrest the Pope but Justinian soldiers were repulsed bylocal militia in Ravenna who were loyal to the Pope in response to the Quinniesexist councils prohibition of depictions of Jesus as a lamb pokeSergius introduced Agnes day into the Liturgy of the Roman mass the RomanChurch never accepted the Quinnie sects Council the following year the UmayyadCaliphate captured Carthage they would complete the conquest of North Africa inthe following decade Manoah lights continued to holdinfluencing Constantinople in 711 Emperor Philippakis bardeen’sascended the throne and installed a monetha light John the sixth as Bishopof Constantinople who convened a synod that revoked the sick that key MedicalCouncil Pope Constantine excommunicated them at the same time Bulgariansplundered Thrace up to the walls of Constantinople and the Byzantine armyrebelled against Philippakis blinding him and installing his secretary asemperor anastasius anastasius reinstated the 6th ecumenical council and deposedthe mana thelight patriarch John the 6th replacing him with the orthodoxpatriarch Germanness in 715 the Umayyad Caliphate invaded Spain in 711 anddestroyed the Visigoths the Umayyad Caliphate then invaded Gaul where theymet Charles Martel prince of the franks at the Battle of Tours in 732 CharlesMartel defeated the Umayyad Caliphate he retreated to Iberia leaving Gaul underthe control of the Franks the umayyad caliphates laid siege to Constantinoplefrom 717 to 719 Emperor Leo the asourian enlisted the help of the Bulgarians whoforced the Umayyad Caliphate to retreat Leo feared that the Empire had lostfavor with God due to the veneration of icons in 730 he issued an edictprohibiting the veneration of icons and installed an iconoclast anastasios aspatriarch of constantinople pope gregory ii condemned Leo’s iconoclasm and SaintJohn of Damascus living in Umayyad held Damascus wrote a firm defense of theveneration of icons lo successor constantine v zealouslyenforced iconoclasm declaring he cannot be depicted for what is depicted is oneperson and he who circumscribes that person as plainly circumscribed thedivine nature which is incapable of being circumscribed in February 754constantine convened a synod of eastern bishops who voted in favor of iconoclasmby the end of Constantine’s reign iconoclasm had gone as far as to brandrelics and prayers to the Saints as heretical meanwhile with the ByzantineEmpire distracted by wars against the Bulgarians and Muslims Lombard King iceDolph captured Ravenna in 751 ending over two centuries of Byzantine rulefollowing the Lombard conquest of Ravenna Pope Zachary appealed for helpfrom Pepin the younger whom he crowned king of the franks the franks invadedItaly and conquered the Lombards and granted most of the former executor ofRavenna to the Pope as his temporal domain which would become known as thepapal States this marked a significant new era in the papacy which for theprevious 200 years had been under the relatively stable protection of theByzantine Empire for the next a hundred years the papacy would find itself atthe center of seemingly unending conflicts between Italian principalitiesand Europe’s great powers the popes of rome continued to opposebyzantine iconoclasm emperor constantine vi finally relented and allowed theseventh ecumenical council to meet in 787 the council had to meet in Nicaeasite of the first ecumenical council in 325 because the city of Constantinoplewas under iconoclast rule the seventh ecumenical councilagreed to the demands of Pope Adrian the first and affirmed the orthodoxy of theveneration of icons of Jesus the Blessed Virgin Mary the angels and the Saints onChristmas Day in a hundred Pope Leo the third crowned Charlemagne Holy RomanEmperor as some Peter’s Basilica in Rome while the Byzantine Empire saw it as abetrayal since there had been the guardian of the faith for the past fourhundred years the Pope hoped it would usher in a new era of stability andindependence and free the papacy from outside political meddling insteadCharlemagne’s empire would quickly splinter after his death and the papacywould find itself at the mercy of whichever italian principality happenedto have the most power at any particular moment in 823 king harald plaque ofdenmark was baptized and Catholic missionaries continued to spread thegospel in Norway and Sweden in 815 Byzantine Emperor Leo vreinstituted iconoclasm Pope Pascal the first offered persecuted Byzantine monksrefuge in Rome st.Theodore the study in Constantinople wrote zealously againsticonoclasm finally in 843 Byzantine Emperor Michael the third deposed theiconoclast patriarch John the seventh of Constantinople replacing him withpatriarch Methodius the first which brought an end to Constantinople secondera of iconoclasm in 827 the Abbasid Caliphate launched an invasion of Sicilyand southern Italy which had been under Byzantine rule in 846 the Anglo bitsvassals of the Abbasid Caliphate and known to Italy as Saracens landed incentral Italy and defeated the local Roman militia the Saracens plundered allof Rome outside the irrilium wall including st. Peter’s Basilica wherePope Leo the third had crowned Charlemagne Holy Roman Emperor just 46years earlier in response Pope Leo the fourth called together a fleet fromneighboring Italian principalities that defeated the Saracen Navy at the Battleof Ostia in 849 missionaries Cyril and Methodiusconverted the Slavic tribes of Central Europe in great Moravia and Pannoniafrom 862 to 885 and brought these tribes into communion with Rome in 858 patriarch Ignatius ofConstantinople was deposed and a layman photius was appointed patriarch byEmperor Michael the third Ignatius and photius both appealed to Pope Nicholasthe first who recognized Ignatius in his rightful patriarch Roman Constantinoplefell into schism until 867 when Nicholas died and photius was deposed by newemperor basil the first in 864 con boris the first of bulgaria was baptised intothe Catholic faith and sought competing offers from Rome and Constantinople asto which Patriarchate he should belong to in 869 the fourth Council ofConstantinople affirmed that a position of photius and prohibited criticism ofthe Pope it also affirmed the veneration of images of Jesus his mother Mary theangels and the Saints and recognized Constantinople as the second highest seein the church photius became patriarch of Constantinople for a second time in877 and held a council in 879 revoking the Council of a hundred and sixty-ninethe Council of 879 was not accepted by Rome in the 9th century the pagan magismigrated from Central Asia to Eastern Europe and conquered present-day Hungaryfrom where they launched raids against the scattered principalities of theformer Carolingian Empire at the same time Vikings from Scandinavia harassedthe coast of northern Europe and England the Carolingian Empire had beenestablished with the crowning of Charlemagne in a hundred but hissuccessors were unable to keep the Empire United the Carolingian Empiresplit apart for good in 888 in the absence of a strong central power inWestern Europe the papacy found itself at the mercy of local Italianprincipalities while the opposite Caliphate conquered Sicily and centralItaly coming within striking distance of Romeleo the sixth became byzantine emperor in 886 he banished photius and liberatedsouthern Italy from the opposite caliphate but lost sicily and failed inan attempt to retake crete in 907 and 911 kievan rus laid siege toconstantinople forcing the negotiation of a favorable trade treatyalthough photius had attempted to convert kievan rus’ to christianity theking and a majority of the people remained pagan until the end of the 10thcentury Norse Vikings had been raiding northern Europe since 820 in 911 Charlesthe 3rd king of West Frankia negotiated an agreement with Viking leader Rollothey granted the Vikings territory in northern France which became known asthe Duchy of Normandy the Normans would come to play a major part in churchhistory in the coming centuries the disintegration of the Carolingian Empireallowed count fearful act of Tusculum in Italy to attain de facto rule over Romefearful act and his family used their power to control elections to the papacyin the early 10th century an era called the secular obscure the Dark Age of thepapacy while rome was dominated by the count oftusculum monasticism and church discipline declined across Europe as theCarolingian Empire disintegrated into countless separate fiefdoms in 910 st.Brno became Abbot of the new abbey of Cluny and immediately enforced a strictinterpretation of the rule of st.Benedict in the following century a newline of popes would emerge from Clooney Abbey to reform the church and defy theHoly Roman Emperor the Abbasid Caliphate captured central Italy in the late 9thcentury threatening Rome itself in 915 Italian forces under the command of PopeJohn the 10th and Byzantine forces from southern Italy attacked the main Abhisitfortress on the curricula Arno River in central Italy the Abbasids were defeatedand driven from mainland Italy back to Sicily Otto Duke of Saxony United theGerman territories of the former Carolingian Empire and restored the HolyRoman Empire Otto brought an end to the mud jar raids against Europe with hisvictory at the Battle of ledge felled in 955 earning him the reputation as thesavior of Christendom in 961 Otto conquered Italy and was crowned HolyRoman Emperor st.Peter’s Basilica in 962 otto also negotiated a peace thatpermitted the byzantine empire to retain southern Italy more kingdoms of northernand eastern europe converted to christianity in the 10th century in 966Mia’s kojic of Poland was baptized in 988 Vladimir the great Grand Prince ofKiev was baptized in 995 Olaf 3 person became the first Christian King ofNorway Sweden and magyar Hungary remained two of the few pagan countriesleft in Europe nubia Modern Sudan and Ethiopia had beenloyal to the patriarch of Alexandria from the beginning of the church Nubiafollowed the Coptic Church and adopted my visit ISM the Nubian kingdoms ofNebojsa materia and alodia reached the peak of their power in the 10th centurybefore eventually being overrun by the Abbasid Caliphate by the beginning ofthe 11th century the Byzantine Empire had recovered much of its formerterritory and reasserted itself as the dominant power in the easternMediterranean Antioch Syria and Palestine north of Jerusalem wererecaptured by the Empire before the turn of the millennium under emperor basil iithe byzantine empire conquered bulgaria the Crimea and the southern Caucasus inthe year 1001 Stephen the first became the first Catholic king of Hungary andin 1008 all of scud Kooning king of sweden was baptized as a Catholic 1,000years after the birth of Jesus Christ all of Europe was united in the Catholicfaith the kingdoms of Nubia had spread Christianity into sub-saharan Africa andthe Church of the East had brought Christianity as far east as China theByzantine Empire had been restored to its former glory and Rome andConstantinople had gone over 100 years without a schism but tensions insouthern Italy and a new threat from Central Asia would soon lead to anenduring schism in the heart of Christendom in the early 11th centurylumbars in southern Italy rebelled against the Byzantine Empire andrecruited mercenaries from the Duchy of Normandy in northern France the Normanswere granted land in return for their service and quickly became the dominantpower in southern Italy the Norman use of Latin Rite worship with unleavenedbread created conflict with local Byzantine citizens who used leavenedbread which they viewed as symbolic of the resurrection Pope Leo the ninth cameto view the Normans as a threat and raised an army to assist the byzantinewar against the Normans but he was defeated by the Normans at the Battle ofcivitate in 1053 in 1051 Benedictine monk Peter Damienurged the Pope to correct widespread problems in the clergy particularly thelack of celibacy the purchase of clerical offices a practice that wasnamed simony after simon magus who sought to buy the gift of laying onhands from the Apostle Peter and the appointment of Bishops by secular rulerswhich was known as lay investiture the attempt by the Pope’s in the comingdecades to correct these vices would lead to confrontation with the HolyRoman Emperor Peter Damien also began the fundamental debate of the secondmillennium concerning the relationship between reason and faith arguing thatphilosophy should be used in a manner consistent with the Christian faith patriarch Michael Cyril arias inConstantinople was angered by the Norman disturbance in southern Italy and wrotea letter criticizing their liturgical practices he also closed Latin Ritechurches in Constantinople in reprisal for Norman closings of Byzantinechurches in southern Italy Pope Leo the 9th sent Cardinal Humbert of SilvaCandida to negotiate with Carol arias but Carol arias refused to meet with himafter months of waiting Cardinal Humbert delivered a notice of excommunicationagainst Carol arias on July the 16th 1054 but Pope Leo had died three monthsearlier so the excommunication had no effect nevertheless Carol arias removedLeo’s name from the diptych in Constantinople in 1066 William theConqueror defeated harold ii of england at the Battle of Hastings William becameKing of England in southern Italy pope nicholas ii made peace with the NormansInvesting Norman leader Robert Guiscard as Duke of southern Italy and Sicily theNormans finish their conquest of byzantine southern Italy and Sicily in1070 – and turned their sights on the Balkans where Norman leader RobertGuiscard defeated the Byzantine Empire in aseries of battles and established a short-lived Norman fir holdhowever the Normans were urgently recalled to Italy by Pope Gregory whowas under siege by Emperor Henry the fourth of theRoman Empire by 1073 the Holy Roman Empire had fallenfrom his Heights under Auto the first and was facing fragmentation anddecentralization has various principalities challenged the authorityof Emperor Henry the fourth meanwhile Pope Gregory the seventh was attemptingto reform the church by restoring priestly celibacy ending simony andending lay investiture the appointment of Bishops by the secular King this lastreform brought Pope Gregory into conflict with Emperor Henry and afterthe Emperor attempted to depose Gregory Gregory deposed and excommunicated theEmperor after several attempts at reconciliation Emperor Henry the fourthinvaded Rome and appointed Ebert of Ravenna as anti Pope Clement the thirdRobert Guiscard defeated Emperor Henry the fourth at Rome but following thevictory Robert Guiscard Norman soldiers plundered the city after three days thatpeople of Rome rose up against the Normans while the Normans suppress themand set fire to much of the city hope Gregory the seventh was exiled and diedshortly thereafter Robert Guiscard army left Rome to focus on their war with thebyzantine empire leaving aunty pope clement the third who was loyal to theholy roman empire in control of the city the next two popes victor the third andherb and the second were forced to reign from outside the city until 1096 when afrench army called to the crusades by pope urban ii liberated rome and allowedpope urban to safely return the foremost theologian of the 11thcentury was Bishop Anselm of Canterbury who introduced the ontological proof forthe existence of God argued in favor of the procession of the Holy Spirit fromthe father and the son and taught the satisfaction theory of the atonementthat Jesus Christ offered himself on the cross not merely as a ransom to thedevil but in satisfaction of the debt of honor that mankind owed to God and somebecame embroiled in what would become the fundamental philosophical debate ofthe second millennium concerning the relationship between universals andparticulars the latin world had generally accepted the realistphilosophy of Plato and Aristotle the universals have a real existence late inthe 11th century a French philosopher named Ross :challenged realism and introduced the philosophy known as nominalism teachingthat only particulars exist and that universals are merely words given tocommon attributes of particulars ruslan also argued that the Father and the Sonand the Holy Spirit were not one God but three gods Anselm a realist stronglycondemned Ruslan’s teachings but the cause of nominalism would be taken up inthe 12th century by the philosopher Peter Abelard the Seljuk Turks led by ARP haslin hadmigrated from Central Asia north of the Caspian and arel seas into Persia andinvaded the Byzantine Empire in 1068 in 1071 the Turks decisively defeated theByzantine Empire at the Battle of Mons occurred effectively bringing all ofAnatolia and the Turkish control the Turkish Empire became the dominant powerin the Middle East stretching from Anatolia to the borders of China as Ihear al Dola our took bay founded the Artic witdynasty which ruled the east coast of mediterranean sea including Antioch andJerusalem reports soon reached Europe of mistreatment of Christian pilgrims inthe Holy Land in 1095 Byzantine Emperor Alexios thefirst appealed to pope urban ii for help against the seljuq turkspope urban ii proclaimed the first crusade and granted a plenary indulgenceto all who joined a peasant army led by peter the hermit arrived inconstantinople in 1096 but they were easily defeated by the turks uponcrossing into Anatolia the princes Crusade succeeded in defeating the Turksin Anatolia in 1098 they captured Antioch meanwhile Fatimid Arabs hadsucceeded in liberating Jerusalem from the Artic Witsell jokes the fatimidswere elide with the byzantine empire nevertheless the Crusaders set aside theinitial objective of repulsing the Seljuk Turks and sought to reclaim theHoly Land for Christendom in 1099 the Crusaders captured Jerusalem from theFatimids after a long siege the Crusaders slaughtered every inhabitantof the city in contrast when the Arab Muslims had captured Jerusalem in 637they did not kill a single inhabitant instead the Muslim caliph Umar son of alkhattab calmly and the city are escorted and toward it with patriarchs a furnacethe Crusaders defeated a counter-attack by the Fatimids at the Battle of Ascalonand Muhammad’s retreated into Egypt leaving the Crusaders in control of theCrusader States at Antioch Tripoli and Jerusalem for the time beingat the start of the 12th century Pope pascal ii appointed eric new personbishop of Greenland and Vinland modern-day newfoundland making him thefirst bishop of america the investiture controversy that began under PopeGregory the 7th and Emperor Henry the 4th finally came to a resolution betweenEmperor Henry the fifth and Pope Callistus and second with the Concordatof worms in 1122 previous Holy Roman emperors had thought it their right toappoint bishops and to confirm the papal election the Concordat of wormssignificantly reduced the Emperor’s power the king was recognized as havingthe right to invest bishops with secular authority but not with religiousauthority the Melkite patriarch of antioch Anastasis ii died in 609 andconstantinople began to appoint a series of titular patriarchs who resided not inAntioch but in Constantinople in 685 the Maronites elected bishop John Marin ofMaroon as patriarch of Antioch and all the East the Maronites welcomed theCrusaders and saw reunion with Rome in 1131 reunion was granted and Maronitepatriarch Gregorius al halat II was recognized by Pope Innocent ii as therightful patriarch of Antioch early in the 12th century a professor ofthe university of paris named peter abelard planted the seeds of rationalismthat would come to dominate philosophical thought in the secondmillennium Abelard championed the use of aristotle in logic regardless of whetherit led to orthodox theological conclusions Abelard was accused ofdenying the separate existence of the three persons of the trinity and ofteaching that Jesus did not atone for humanity’s sins but merely set a goodexample for his disciples to follow a Ballards innovative ideas brought himinto conflict with the Catholic hierarchy and st.Bernard of Clairvauxby the beginning of the 12th century discipline in monasteries had once againdeclined the Cistercian movement sought to restore monasteries to the austerityof the rule of st. benedict with an emphasis on manual labor saint bernardof clairvaux joined the Cistercian monastery in the 12th century andquickly became recognized across europe as the most influential mystic in thechurch bernard rebutted the teachings of peter abelardand was instrumental in preaching the second crusade in 1140 for the seljuqempire recaptured odessa from the Crusader States in response Pope Eugenethe third called for the second crusade which was fervently preached by SaintBernard however the Crusaders suffered a crushing defeat at the hands of theseljuqs st. Bernard felt humiliated and wrote aletter of apology to the Pope elsewhere the holy roman empire launched thewendish Crusades to convert the Palladian Slavs in North East Europe andAragon and Castile retook Spain from the Muslim taifa kingdoms the papacy suffered a series of defeatsagainst Norman occupied southern Italy following the Norman sack of Rome in1084 Pope Innocent ii was ambushed and taken prisoner by norman troops in 1139in 1140 for papal forces were again defeated by the Normans the newly formedRoman Senate used the opportunity to revolt against the Pope declaring thecommune of Rome in 1144 the following year Pope Lucius the second guideleading an assault against the commune arnold of brassia was a student of thepeter abelard while Abelard abandoned his teachings under the threat ofexcommunication arnold brazenly championed Abelard teachings anddefiance of the church in 1145 arnold returned from exile to join thecommunist Rome and the following year he succeeded in driving Pope Eugene thethird from the sissy donald rejected the temporal power of the Pope denouncedclerical wealth and championed apostolic poverty ideas that would find a growingaudience among dissenters such as Peter Waldo the spiritualist sect of theFranciscans and John Wickliffe in the coming centuries hope Adrian the fourthsummoned an army from the Holy Roman Emperor Frederick Barbarossa to retakethe city of Rome and Arnold was burned at the stake Islamic philosophyflourished as early as the 8th century based on the writings of Plato andAristotle and led to significant developments in science and mathematicsin the 11th century Persian scholar al-ghazali led a reaction against Greekphilosophy in his treatise the incoherence of the Philosopher’sal-ghazali was strongly rebutted in the 12th century by the Spanish philosopherof errors whose arguments in favor of the use of aristocracy in logic had apowerful influence on medieval scholastic theologians at theuniversities of Paris and Naples in the middle of the 12th century Peter Lombarda scholar at the University of Paris wrote one of the first comprehensivetextbooks on Christian theology the book of sentences which would form the basisof scholastic studies for the next several centuries saladin a sunni muslim from the abbasidcaliphate traveled to cairo as an advisor to the sheer Fatimid CaliphateSaladin quickly rose through the ranks and eventually overthrew the FatimidCaliphate becoming sultan of the new are you would sultanate and launching asuccessful military campaign that recaptured Jerusalem Damascus and otherterritory from the Crusader States following which he negotiated a peacewith King Richard the Lionheart of England during this time Constantinoplehad made trade agreements with Venice Genoa and Pisa Italian merchants soonbecame a sizable portion of the city’s populationcausing resentment among the local Greeks tensions in Constantinoplefinally boiled over in 1182 when the Greeks massacred nearly the entire60,000 Italian population of Constantinople in 1194 Holy RomanEmperor Henry the sick took control of the Norman Kingdom southern Italy andSicily through his marriage to Constance daughter of the Norman King Roger thesecond Henry’s son Frederick would go on to lead a series of wars against thecity-states of Italy the would eventually lead the Pope to turn to anew ally France Venice got its revenge againstConstantinople in 1204 when the Fourth Crusade which had been commissioned tocome to the aid of the Crusader States instead sacked Constantinople andreplaced the Byzantine Empire with the Latin Empire the Byzantine Empire splitsinto three different kingdoms on the opposite Shores around Nicaea in 1209francis of assisi formed the order of Friars Minor with the approval of PopeInnocent the third the Friars devoted themselves to lives of poverty andpreaching in southern France the old heresy of manichaeism had been revivedby the Cathars in 1209 openness and the third proclaimed a crusade against theCathars which was completed by the kingdom of france in 1226 saint dominicfounder of the order of preachers followed the Crusader armies preachingconversion to the Cathar people as early as the 8th century the doctrine of theHoly Eucharist had been the subjective academic discussion in Western Europe inthe 11th century brenger of Tours was condemned fordenying that the body and blood of Jesus Christ were truly present in thesacrament of the Eucharist in 1215 the fourth Lateran council affirmed thedoctrine of transubstantiation declaring his body and blood are truly containedin the sacrament of the altar under the forms of bread and wine the bread andwine having been transubstantiated by God’s power into his body and blood sothat in order to achieve this mystery of unity we receive from God what hereceived from us throughout the first half of the 13thcentury holy roman emperor frederick ii led multiple military campaigns againsthis Hallion city-states that resisted his rule supporters of the emperorbecame known as Ghibellines while opponents of the emperor became known asGuelph’s the constant fighting in chaos throughout Italy destabilized andendangered the papacy in the coming decades ho urban the fourth would turnto the French Duke Charles of Anjou to restore stability to the Italianpeninsula the Carmelite Order was the only Catholic religious order formed inthe Crusader States and was named after Mount Carmel in northern Palestine in1251 a Carmelite priest in England named Simon stock received a vision of theBlessed Virgin Mary in which she gave him the brown scapular promising thatthose who died wearing the scapular would be saved in 1258 Michael theeighth that the kingdom of Nicaea to retake Constantinople from the LatinEmpire re-establishing the Byzantine Empire Michael sought reconciliationwith the West particularly to save the Byzantine Empire from the ambitions ofthe new King of Sicily Charles of Anjou in 1258 manfred an illegitimate son ofthe Holy Roman Emperor usurped the throne of Sicily Pope Urban the fourthsaw an opportunity to end the constant wars in Italy by declaring Manfred’srule illegitimate and requesting the intervention of Charles of Anjou son ofthe King of France Charles entered Italy with a powerful French army in 1266 anddefeated and killed Manfred allowing Charles to become ruler of the newkingdom of Naples over southern Italy and Sicily the Holy Roman Empiredispatched a relief force under Emperor konradin last heir of the Hohenstaufendynasty the konradin was defeated and executed by Charlesin the middle of the 13th century the clear and precise scholastic theology ofDominican friar Thomas Aquinas earned him the nickname the angelic doctorAquinas emphasized the importance of the intellect over the will he argued thatthe human intellect was the highest nature in the created universe and thathumans would come to know God through our intellect Aquinas resolved theproblem of universals with the doctrine of moderate realism teaching that thehuman intellect allows the mind to understand universals that truly existsin particular outside the mind Aquinas died while on his way to the Council ofLeon in 1274 at the Council of Leon in 1274 Byzantine Emperor Michael theeighth and patriarch Germanness of Constantinople agreed to the demands ofthe Catholic Church the Pope was recognized as supreme and the Byzantinechurch agreed that the holy spirit proceeded from the father through theson the by sometime people however still incense to the Latins for sackingConstantinople refused to accept the Council of Leondespite forceful measures by Emperor Michael to impose it on his people King Rudolph the first of Germany hadrenounced all Habsburg claims to Rome and Sicily leaving Charles of Anjou incontrol of southern Italy and Sicily Pope Martin the fourth excommunicatedByzantine Emperor Michael the ape Charles prepared a fleet to invadeConstantinople but before the invasion took launch the people of Sicilyrebelled in the Sicilian Vespers heated the third the King of Aragon invadedSicily and Charles had to abandon his plans to invade Constantinople theMongols had conquered Persia by 12:21 and in 1258 they captured baghdaddestroying the Abbasid Caliphate the ia bid Sultanate in Egypt was overthrown bythe Mamluks who allied with the surviving Crusader states of JerusalemTripoli and Antioch against the Mongols once the Mongolthreat had been reduced the Mamluks sank the remaining Crusader states inresponse to arrogance invasion of Sicily Pope Martin the fourth called for thearrogance Crusades which saw over 100,000 French soldiers under KingPhilip the third the nephew of Charles of Anjou invade Spain nearly the entireFrench army was destroyed and King Philip died his son fed up the fourthmanaged to escape back into France in 1288 a Nestorian priest from ChinaRobin BA Salma completed his journey to Rome where he was welcomed by PopeNicholas the fourth and allowed to celebrate Mass in his own liturgicalRite perhaps the only scholastic rival to Thomas Aquinas was the Franciscantheologian Duns Scotus who in the late 13th century developed atheology that emphasized God’s freedom of will rather than God’s intellectwhich had been the emphasis of Aquinas thus SCOTUS introduced the question ofvoluntarism whether gods will precedes God’s intellectalthough SCOTUS taught that God’s Will was always directed towards God’s ownBeauty subsequent philosophers such as William of Occam would introduce radicalnotions of God’s freedom of will SCOTUS also argued conclusively in favor of theImmaculate Conception of the Blessed Virgin Mary teaching that Mary wasconceived without original sinn Rome soon found that his new Frenchmasters were no less troublesome than the Holy Roman Empire the Frenchmonarchy was left on the verge of bankruptcy by the Aragonese crusade andKing Philip the fourth whose father died in the crusade tanks the Catholic Churchin France as a source of revenue which set off a conflict with Pope Bonifacethe 8th King Philip the four called a council to assert the Kings rights overthe church in France in 1302 Pope Boniface the eighth responded with thepapal bull unum sanctum which declared that the Pope not only held supremespiritual authority on earth but also all temporal authority and that allKings including Philip was subject to the Pope the bull famously states wedeclare we proclaim we define that it is absolutely necessary for salvation thatevery human creature be subject to the Roman pontiff King Philip the fourth wasoutraged by unum Sanctum an ordered pope boniface to be abducted the Pope waskidnapped but quickly liberated and died shortly thereafter from his mistreatmentin captivity in 1309 pope clement v moved the papal court to Avignon nearthe French border to placate King Philip the Avignon papacy would last until 1377when pope gregory xi had the urging of st.Catherine of Siena returned thepapacy to Rome the Pope and the Holy Roman Emperor hadbeen in a state of almost constant conflict since the investiturecontroversy of the 11th century the Avignon papacy now made it clear thatFrance had become the dominant power behind the papacy Pope John the 22ndexcommunicated Holy Roman Emperor Louie the fourth in 1324 Louie responded byinstalling an anti Pope in Rome and by employing scholars such as Maher Siliusof Padua to write treatises advocating that the secular monarch rather than thePope should have supreme authority over the church the most brilliant scholaremployed by Emperor Louie was Franciscan philosopher William of Ockham whoadvanced the philosophies of nominalism and volunteerismakhom challenged Aquinas his solution to the problem of universals arguing thatonly particulars exist outside the mind and the universals are the mentalsubstitute for real things a philosophy known as Turman ism ahkam also radicallyadvanced the notion of voluntarism there had been introduced by Duns Scotusarguing that God was radically free to act in any mannerakhom went so far as to declare that God could have redeemed the human race bybecoming a donkey rather than a man Vulcan became known as the father ofepistemology and would have a profound influence on philosophers throughout thesecond millennium his followers included yet gruta founder of the devotionMadonna and Martin Luther who started the Protestant Reformationakhom felons conflict with Pope John the 22nd over the issue of Franciscanpoverty and was excommunicated meanwhile in Constantinople controversyarose when Gregory Palamas a practitioner of the monastic movementknown as haste chasm argued that a real distinction exists between God’sexistence and God’s energies Palamas taught that God interacts with thecreated world through his uncreated energies this teaching was ratified by aseries of synopsis Constantinople from 1341 to 1351 however Latin scholarscondemned the teaching arguing that the teaching of a real distinction betweenGod’s essence and energies amounts to polytheism King Charles the fourth ofFrance died without a male heir in 1328 his nearest relative was King Edward thethird of England who claimed the French throne instead Philip the sixth cousinof Charles was crowned King Edward initially accepted Philip but changedhis mind in 1337 setting off the Hundred Years War the English fought not only toattain the French throne but to maintain their substantial land holdings on thecontinent in Normandy and Aquitaine in 1347 Genoese traders fled from anoutbreak of the plague in the Crimea but carried the plague with them to Sicilyfrom where is spread to all of Europe the plague killed an estimated 75 to 200million people wiping out 30 to 60 percent of Europe’s population inEngland in the 13 70s a secular college professor John Wickliffe began writingcriticisms of the church similar to Arnold address here 200 years earlierWickliffe called for the removal of temporal authority from the clergy andthe divestment of the church is wealth Wickliffe compared the Pope with theAntichrist and argued that the Bible was the only source of authority in thechurch he became the first person to translate the Bible into English hisfollowers became known as Lollards Wickliffe was posthumously declared aheretic by the Council of Constance in 1415in China the red turban rebellion from 1350 to 1368 threw off Mongol rule theNestorian church of the east had been associated with the mongols and wassuppressed following the rebellion in 1370 for a Dutch Roman Catholic Deaconnamed geared gruta a student of William of Ockham began a public missionarycampaign in which he denounced worldly pleasures gruta founded the Brethren forthe common life in 1387 an order of canons regular priests devoted to publicministry and who lived in community the heart of this devotion Madonna was tosearch for inner peace based on the denial of one’s own self and achieved byardour and silence the devotion Madonna emphasized solitary meditation on Christpassion and redemption on one’s own death the Last Judgement heaven and hellThomas a Kempis author of the popular devotional bookthe imitation of Christ was a priest in the brethren for common life in 1378just one year after the end of the Avignon papacy a faction of Cardinalsrebelled against Pope Urban the sixth electing anti Pope Clement the seventhin Avignon successes of anti Pope Clement the seventh continued to claimto be the rightful pope until 14 29 the schism was exacerbated by a council inpisa in 1409 that elected a second anti Pope migrating Muslims from Persia andthe oghuz Turkish homeland overcame the Seljuks in Anatolia and formed theOttoman Empire in the 13th century the Ottomans conquered Anatolia andsuccessfully invaded Eastern Europe seizing most of Bulgaria SerbiaMacedonia and the Balkans leaving Constantinople almost entirelysurrounded tima founder of the timurid empireinvaded Anatolia in 1403 and decisively defeated the Ottomans of the Battle ofAnkara in 1403 the surviving Ottoman factions were thrown into civil war forthe following 10 years Timur also defeated the Mamluk Muslims in theLevant and Iraq leaving his empire as the dominant Muslim power in the MiddleEast Timur died in 1405 and his empire disintegrated leaving the Ottomans andMamluks to struggle for control of them at least the Western schism was finallybrought to an end when Pope Gregory the twelve resigned following the Council ofConstance in 1415 Gregory died in 1417 and Pope Martin v was elected in hisplace the Council of Constance gave rise to the conciliar movement in the 15thcentury the doctrine that church councils had more authority than thePope the Roman Church never accepted the conciliar movement and Pope Martin v wasquick to assert the supremacy of the Pope over church councils the Council ofConstance had condemned Jan Hus a bohemian priest who followed some of theteachings of John Wycliffe criticized indulgences and asserted the authorityof Scripture over the hierarchy of the church HUS was burned at the stake bythe Council of Constance in 1415 and his followers in Bohemia revolted againstthe Catholic Church a radical party of her sites rejected everything that theybelieved had no basis in the Bible such as the veneration of saints and imagesvasts intercession for the dead confession indulgences and thesacraments of confirmation and the anointing of the sick Pope Martin thefit authorized for Crusades against the her sites but who site leader Jan’s iskedefeated all four of them a series of compromises were negotiated between themoderate her sites and the Catholic Church over the next centuryanteye Pope Clement the eighth in a veneer on did not resign until 1429 in1438 King Charles the seventh in France issued the pragmatic sanction whichrequired a church council with authority superior to that of the Pope to be heldevery 10 years required election rather than appointment to ecclesiasticaloffices prohibited the Pope from bestowing and profiting from beneficesand forbade appeals to Rome from places further than two days journey the Popenever accepted the pragmatic sanction following the end of the Ottoman civilwar the Ottomans attacked Constantinople capturing Thessalonica and laying siegeto the city in 1420 to Byzantine Emperor John the 8th visited Pope Eugene the 4thto ask for help the Council of Florence met in 1439 attended by ByzantineEmperor John the 8th and patriarch Joseph ii of constantinople as well asover 700 delegates from various Eastern nations including Russia Armenia andEthiopia the Byzantines agreed to Catholic demands of the council but onceagain the people of Constantinople refused to accept itGrand Prince Vasili of the Grand Duchy of Moscow also refused to accept thecouncil sultan murad ii had treated constantinople as a vassal state untilhis death in 1451 when his son mehmet ii took the throne and was determined tobring an end to the byzantine empire once and for allMehmed used the new technology of siege cannons to destroy Constantinople’swalls which had defended the city against all would-be conquerorsfor over a thousand years on May 29th 1453 the ottomans breached the citywalls killed emperor constantine xi and plundered the city for three days theMamluk Sultanate in Egypt survived until 1517 when it was conquered by theOttoman Empire French King Charles the seventhsuccessfully defeated the remaining English possessions in Normandy bringingan effective end to the Hundred Years War with his victory at the Battle ofcastelln in July 1453 in 1469 ferdinand ii of aragon word catherine the first ofCastile uniting the two dynasties and bringing about the kingdom of Spain in1478 Ferdinand and Isabella implemented the Spanish Inquisition charged withinvestigating suspected heretics the Inquisition focused primarily onconverse from Islam and Judaism who were suspected of reverting to their formerreligion in 1492 Ferdinand and Isabella expelled the Jews from Spain theexpulsion of Muslims from Spain would not come until 1609 while the Universityof Paris delved ever deeper into fringe questions of scholasticism Rome and theItalian city-states sought to recover the works of ancient Greek antiquitythat were made available through the Crusades and the flight of Greekintellectuals from the advancing Ottoman Empirethese ancient Greek writings introduced new secular humanist motive thought toWestern Europe such as the maxim of the ancient Greek writer Protagoras man isthe measure of all things the Renaissance saw Italy’s wealthyelite abandon all pretense of religious piety as they indulged in opulentdisplays of art and architecture popular resentment grew throughout Italy againstthe irreligious nature of the Renaissance in Florence Dominican friarGirolamo Savonarola led a revolt and briefly took over the governmentSavonarola who was excommunicated and publicly executedFlorence remained under the rule of a revolutionary government whose secretaryat war was Nicolo Machiavelli in 1488 what Jesus pleura surounded theCape of Good Hope for the first time in modern history in 1492 ChristopherColumbus discovered the Americas these events paved the way for Catholicmissionary work across the whole world in the coming centuries the Italiancity-states of Genoa Venice Milan Florence and Pisahad been in an almost constant state of war with each other for severalcenturies in the early 16th century they appealed for intervention from the twolargest powers in Europe France and the Holy Roman Empire when France sought analliance with Spain the Spanish quickly used their holdings in Sicily to takeover the kingdom of Naples the Pope now found himself caught between three greatpowers France Spain and the Holy Roman Empire 1,500 years after the birth ofJesus Christianity was fracturing in Africaand Asia Nubian Christianity and the Church of the East had shrunksignificantly from their former peak most of the population in the Greekoriental Orthodox and Nestorian churches had rejected the reunion that had beennegotiated at the Council of Florence the Ottoman Empire had conquered all theoriginal Apostolic churches other than Rome Germany under the influence ofwriters such as William of Occam and Jan Hus have lost respect for the PopeFrance had come to view church councils and his King as superior to the Pope andItaly had fallen into the decadent excesses of the Renaissance but even asthe old world was abandoning Catholicism millions of people across the AmericasAfrica and Asia stood ready to embrace the Catholic faith in the comingcenturies in 1505 hope julius ii announced plansto rebuild st.Peter’s Basilica Julia successor Pope Leo the tenth offeredindulgences throughout Europe for those who contributed to the basilica’sconstruction the Renaissance heavily influenced political theory in Europeand increasingly led monarchs to view themselves as superior to the Pope notonly in secular matters but even in matters of religion in 1513 NicoloMachiavelli wrote the prince which argued that religion was a man-made toolfor princes to use for their own political interests King Francis thefirst and Pope Leo the tenth negotiated the repeal of the pragmatic sanctionwith the Concordat of Bologna in 1516 which affirmed the Pope’s supremacy overchurch councils and did the election of French bishops and provided for revenuesharing between the church and the king in France in 1517 Augustinian a monkMartin Luther published 95 theses critical of the practice of sellingindulgences when the catholic church condemned Luther’s teachings Luther’scriticisms escalated into an attack on the Pope himself in 1521 following hisexcommunication by Pope Leo the tenth Luther called the Pope the Antichristother opponents of the Pope such as shield tricked swingley in ZurichSwitzerland sprung up across Northern Europe King Charles the first of Spainwas elected Holy Roman Emperor in 1519 making him ruler of Spain the Holy RomanEmpire the Netherlands Sicily and Naples the most powerful man in Europethe forces of the Holy Roman Empire and Spain were heavily involved in theongoing Italian Wars in the first half of the 16th century in 1527 soldiers ofthe Holy Roman Empire sacked Rome an estimated 6,000 to 12,000 people weremurdered the population of Rome dropped from 55 thousand to a mere 10,000 PopeClement the seventh became the prisoner of Emperor Charles the fifth during thesame year pope clement denied a request from king henry the eighth of englandfor an annulment from his wife Catherine of Aragon who was the aunt of Charles tothe shock of the Christian world France allied itself with the Ottoman Empireagainst the Holy Roman Empire in 1526 Suleiman the Magnificent Sultan of theOttoman Empire conquered Hungary in 1529 he laid siege to Vienna but was repulsedSuleiman attempted to attack Vienna a second time in 1532 but failed to reachthe city in 1540 for emperor charles v was forced to concede dominion overHungary to Suleiman in 1531 a native Mexican named Juan Diego received avision of the Blessed Virgin Mary when Juan Diego’s Bishop did not believe hisstory the Blessed Virgin Mary instructed Juan Diego to gather flowers in hiscloak and present them to the bishop when Juan Diego opened his cloak animage of the Blessed Virgin was revealed on the cloak which has been miraculouslypreserved to the present day it is the only Marian apparition to have occurredin the Americas while France Spain the Holy Roman Empireand the Ottoman Empire fought for dominance in the south northern Europeanmonarchs left the Catholic Church on mass in the 1530s in 1531 a group ofGerman princes formed the Shmuel called Italy and left the Roman Catholic ChurchEngland followed suit in 1534 followed by Sweden Denmark Norway Iceland andGreenland in 1536 one of the earliest adherents the Reformation in France wasa lawyer named John Calvin Calvin was forced to flee France by Catholicauthorities in 1541 he became the leader of the Reformation in Geneva with theReformation splintering into Lutheran’s Irving lien Anabaptist and even antiTrinitarian sects Calvin sought to unify Protestantism by writing a comprehensivetreatise on the Christian faith the Institute’s of the Christian religionCalvin’s teachings became widely popular among Protestants in the Netherlands andScotland and his disciples were instrumental in bringing the Reformationto France Calvin continued the philosophical shiftaway from the intellect and toward the will that had begun with SCOTUS andakhom arguing that an individual’s faith is a matter of affection rather thanintellect and that God exercised his freedom of will by predestiny certainpeople to hell without the need to give any intellectual justification for doingso in 1552 shimon viii was electedpatriarch of mosul and leader of the church of the east in contestedcircumstances pope julius the third approved his election and shim insfollowers split off from the Church of the eastforming the Chaldeans Catholic Church in full communion with Romeopponents of shimon continued to elect a rival patriarch in schism with theChurch of Rome war broke out between the Shamal Celtic League and emperor charlesv in 1546 charles quickly crushed the Shmuel Celtic League and sought toimpose Roman Catholicism throughout the Holy Roman Empire in 1552 the Lutheranprinces in Germany enlisted the support of King Henry ii of france who thoughcatholic was happy to ally with any enemy of Charleswhether it was the Ottoman Empire all the Lutheran princes with Henry’ssupport the Lutheran princes drove Charles out of Germany and he was forcedto negotiate the Peace of Augsburg which established the principle of quiesceregio EIU’s religio each prince in the Holy Roman Empire was free to decide thereligion of his realm George Wishart a disciple of children’singly began preaching Protestantism in Scotland in 1544 he was burned at thestake on the orders of Cardinal David beaten in 1546 in retaliation Wishartfollowers assassinated Cardinal Beaton later that year after Henry the eighthattempted to invade Scotland France intervened and protected the CatholicRegent Mary of Gea’s after Mary died the French withdrew and the ScottishParliament adopted a reformed confession of faith Mary Queen of Scots failed tore-establish Catholicism and her son James the 6th made Protestantismofficial and outlawed Catholicism John Knox a student of John Calvin was thetheological leader of the Scottish Reformation and the Presbyterian Churchwould carry on his tradition in the United States in the coming centuries in1557 the army of king philip ii of spain conquered the papal States up to thewalls of Rome forcing Pope Paul the 4th to surrender to King Philip’s demandsthe Italian Wars concluded in 1559 with France renouncing all of its claims overItaly leaving Habsburg Spain in a position of dominance over the Italianpeninsula this marked a new era of peace and stability for the papacy as nearlyeight centuries of Italian city-state warfare and invasions from France andthe Holy Roman Empire were brought to an endthere had been 41 anti-popes in the previous 15 centuries but since the endof the Italian Wars there has not been a single anti Popethe end of the Italian Wars allowed the Catholic Church to complete the Councilof Trent in 1563 which instituted reforms in Catholic liturgy music artand church governance and placed an emphasis on missions which were led bythe new society of Jesus founded by Saint Ignatius of Loyola the Jesuits in France followers a Protestantism knownas Hugo knows waged a devastating war led by the house of khand against theCatholic monarchy supported by the House of Gea’s in the French Wars of Religionfrom 1560 to to 1598 that would claim the lives of more than 3 million peoplein 1598 the wars came to an end when the Edict of Nantes granted the Hugo nosesubstantial religious freedom the Ottoman Empire captured Cyprus fromVenice in 1571 in response the holy League consisting of a navy from SpainVenice Sicily Naples Genoa and the papal States met the Ottoman Navy at theBattle of Lepanto the Ottoman Navy was destroyed securing the westernMediterranean Sea against the Ottoman Empire Pope Pius the 5th credited theHoly League’s victory to the recitation of the Rosary and instituted the feastof Our Lady of Victory which is now celebrated as our Lady of the Rosary theOttoman Empire treated all Christians under his domain regardless of theirchurch affiliation as a single ethnic group the rum millet they were givenlimited religious freedom subject to a poll tax and subject to the authority ofthe patriarch of Constantinople Russia was the only territory where EasternOrthodox Christians were not under Ottoman rule in 1589 Moscow became aPatriarchate independent of Constantinople in 1595 the RuthenianChurch in Kiev broke communion with Constantinople and re entered intocommunion with Rome in the union of Brest many Eastern Orthodox memberssplit off and formed a rival Church loyal to Constantinople in the 16thcentury Catholic missionaries spread the gospel around the entire world whileEurope’s faithful struggled to understand the competing religious sectsspringing up in the wake of the Reformation English philosopher FrancisBacon introduced a new branch of philosophy independent of religionempiricism the acquisition of knowledge through inductive reasoning andscientific observation of events in nature Bacon’s empiricism would provehighly influential in the Scientific Revolution of the following centuries incontrast to Bacon’s empiricism Rene Descartes explored the limits of whatman could know through reason alone instead of asking what is true theycan’t ask what can I be certain is true Descartes thus switched the focus ofphilosophical inquiry from objective truth to personal subjectiveinterpretation thus although Descartes was a devout Catholic who was trying todefend the Christian faith through reason his work had the unintendedeffect of opening philosophy to relativism and subjectivism in thecoming centuries in 1618 war broke out between Catholicsand Protestants in the Holy Roman Empire the war drew in every major power inEurope the war was more destructive than anything Europe had previously seen 8million people were killed although the war was nominally concluded with theTreaty of Westphalia which granted additional religious freedoms toProtestants war between the great powers of Europe would continue with only smallinterruptions well into the following century in 1642 conflict with Parliamentforced King Charles the first of England to flee London supporters of Parliamentled by Oliver Cromwell defeated the king in the ensuing English Civil War and theking was executed in 1649 Cromwell a member of the new independent Puritanreligious movement which supported the complete independence of eachcongregation without any form of church hierarchy became Lord Protector ofEngland until his death England had conquered Ireland in 1603but Ireland refused to abandon the Roman Catholic faith after Ireland rebelled in1641 Oliver Cromwell conquered the country from 1649 to 1600and Catholicism in England and Ireland it is estimated that over 400,000 RomanCatholics in Ireland lost their lives during the conquest following theconquest the public practice of Catholicism was banned and Catholicpriests were killed when captured Descartes had set forth a recent prooffor the existence of God but in doing so he laid the foundation for deismthe belief that God after setting the universe in motion ceases to interferein its affairs in the 17th century the Jewish Dutch philosopher Baruch Spinozawent even further and argued that there is no distinction between God and theuniverse Spinoza denied the existence of freewill and viewed the entire course ofthe universe including human actions as predetermined and unchangeable inpsychology Spinoza argued that humans were slaves to their emotions and thatthe intellect could never overcome emotion Spinoza also introduced criticaltextual analysis of the Bible and was expelled from hisJewish community for teaching that Moses was not the author of the first fivebooks of the Old Testament Europe’s intellectual and politicalelite were appalled by the horrific destruction of the 30 Years War and thedespotic Puritan regime of Oliver Cromwell to prevent further religiousviolence they introduced a milder non confrontational version of ChristianityEnglish philosopher John Locke led this movement by offering a newinterpretation of the Bible alone free from tradition Locke argued that theBible requires nothing more than for Humanity to believe in Jesus as itsRedeemer and that any further details did not warrant dividing into competingdenominations Locke personally held to the growing belief among Deus and otherintellectual elites in Europe that Jesus Christ was not God but merely a man whohad tried to enlighten humanity in 1630 the Puritans landed in Massachusetts toform a city on a hill in 1632 Lord Baltimore a Roman Catholic receiveda commission from King Charles the first to form the colony of Maryland which heestablished as a haven for Catholics in the new world since the time of theCrusades Franciscan missionaries had been working in Syria and Palestine in1662 Andrew aki-chan was elected syriac orthodox patriarch of Antioch andrestored communion with Rome in 1663 this provoked a split in the communityand the Ottoman government supported the Syriac Orthodox Church against theSyriac Catholics and prevented additional capital patriarchs from beingelected Lutheran and Calvinist reformers had attempted to join forces withEastern Orthodox churches against Rome the Eastern Orthodox initially rejectedthe reformist teachings as modern innovations but in 1629 a Calvinistmanifesto was circulated in Geneva their claim to be authored by patriarch Cyrillucaris of Constantinople in 1672 the Eastern Orthodox churches held a synodat Jerusalem the condemned Calvinism as heretical and affirmed that in thesacrament of the Holy Eucharist the bread and wine are transubstantiatedinto the true body and blood of Jesus Christfrom 1673 to 1675 a French nun named Margaret Mary Alacoque received visionsof Jesus Christ in which he asked to be honored under the figure of his heartand by Eucharistic Adoration during Holy Hour on Thursdays and the reception ofHoly Communion on the first Friday of each month in the second half of the17th century a group of Lutheran’s in Germany sought to introduce a deepersense of piety and devotion in the individual believer this pietisticwickley spread throughout germany but it was opposed by the Lutheran hierarchybecause it treated doctrine as a secondary matter to the practice of theChristian faith and thus allowed for a certain indifference to variations indoctrine the piety strong influence on John Wesley and the American GreatAwakening in the 18th century the Ottoman Empire’s final assault oncentral europe was defeated at the Battle of Vienna by forces of the HolyRoman Empire Poland and the Holy League in the coming centuries the AustrianHapsburgs Rhee conquered much of Eastern Europe and the Balkans ever since Francehad lost its grip on the papacy following the end of the Western schismthe French monarch and many of the French clergy had favored a new movementcalled Gallican ISM which sought to limit interference from the Pope inspiritual and secular affairs the Gallican movement emphasized theabsolute power of the king over the church in France and declared that thePope did not have authority to act without the church’s consent king louisxiv of france favoured Gallican ism but as a concession to the Pope issued theEdict of Fontainebleau in 1685 which revoked the Edict of Nantes outlawedProtestantism in the resulting persecution hundreds of thousands ofhyouka notes left the country in 1686 louis xiv claimed that out of anoriginal hyouka no population of 800,000 to 900,000 only 1000 to 1500 remained infrance france soon became embroiled in wars against the netherlands the HolyRoman Empire England and Spain in the war of Spanish Succession and thewar of the crow duple alliance Spain ceded control of his Italian possessionsand Austria acquired Sardinia Naples and Milan Italy and in particular Romeremained largely at peace throughout this timein 1724 cyril the 6th Tanis became the greek Melkite patriarch of antioch andsought reunion with the pope in 1729 Pope Benedict the 13th recognized Cyrilas patriarch of Antioch patriarch Jeremias the 3rd of Constantinopledeclared Cyril’s election to be invalid excommunicated him and ordained a deaconSylvester of Antioch then appointed Sylvester to the patriarchal sea ofAntioch Jeremias and Sylvester began a campaign of persecution II and Cyrilanimal kite faithful who supported him enforced by Ottoman Turkish troops in1733 Abdullah Zakia set up the first printing press in the Middle East at amulti Catholic monastery in Mount Lebanon the printing press used Arabicmovable type the 18th century saw a philosophy make acomplete break with religion through the Enlightenment which emphasizedempiricism rationalism and skepticism French philosopher Voltaire argued for asociety based on reason rather than religious dogma Scottish philosopherDavid Hume rejected both the rationalism of Rene Descartes and the empiricism ofJohn Locke Hume taught a philosophy of extreme skepticism arguing that humanknowledge is nothing more than a bundle of sensations like Spinoza Hume taughtthat humans are slaves to their emotions German philosopher Immanuel Kant soughtto reconcile the schools of rationalism empiricism and skepticism creating thenew philosophical school of idealism Kant severed the final remaining linksbetween theology and metaphysics by denying that the existence of God couldbe proved through human reason Kant accordingly consigned religion to anentirely separate sphere from philosophy and argued that religion should be basedon a pure moral disposition of the heart rather than ritual ceremony andhierarchy the cold skepticism of the Enlightenment sparked a reaction in theform of a Great Awakening of religious fervor in the American colonies in 1731Jonathan Edwards delivered a public sermon in Boston that attackedArminianism the doctrine that man must cooperate with God’s grace to come tofaith in salvation Edwards declared that it was mere and arbitrary grace for Godto grant any person the faith necessary for salvationEdwards sermon sparked a wave of powerful preaching they gave listeners asense of deep personal need for salvation by Jesus Christ the GreatAwakening pulled away from ritual sacraments and hierarchy and focused onthe direct relationship between the individual believer and Jesus Christ themovement greatly increased membership in the fledgling Baptist and Methodistdenominations in the American colonies in the 1730’s in England John Wesleybegan the practice of open-air preaching and meeting in small groups in an effortto revitalize the Anglican Church his followers were soon called Methodistsand spread to the United States following the American Revolutionary Warthe Anglican Church had few ministers in the United States and was not ordainingnew ones so John Wesley granted Thomas Cook the authority to ordain Methodistministers in America because Wesley and Cooke were not bishops the AnglicanChurch refused to recognize the ministers they ordained leading to thesplit between the Methodist Church and the Anglican Church Europe’s majorpowers clashed in the Seven Years War which led to the loss at multipleoverseas colonies by France and Spain and led to the eventual partition anddissolution of Poland the fighting generally did not involve Italy or Romewhich remained at peace under Austrian rule in 1782 ma Ignatius Michael the 3rdwas elected syriac orthodox patriarch of Antioch after professing a Catholicdefinition of faith re-establishing the line of Syriac Catholic patriarchs thatcontinues down to the present day the Maya physique faction of the SyriacOrthodox Church did not accept the election the French Revolution wasparticularly hostile toward religion the Revolution adopted an anti-christiancult of reason as his official religion followed by the cult of the SupremeBeing Catholic priests and nuns were among those targeted by therevolutionaries in the wake of the French Revolution the French clergyabandoned the Gallic anism and embraced the Pope as their protector with thephilosophers of the Enlightenment claiming for themselves a monopoly onhuman intellect and reason the Second Great Awakening in the United Statesprovided an outlet for Christians who were put off by the cold and skepticalrationalism of the Enlightenment the Second Great Awakening appealed toemotionalism and the supernatural and attracted new members to Baptist andMethodist congregations Italy’s 237 year period of peace underSpanish and Austrian rule came to an end with Napoleon’s conquest of Italy in1796 in 1798 French troops captured Rome and took Pope Pius the 6th prisoner hedied the following year Napoleon defeated the forces of the HolyRoman Empire in 1806 leading to his dissolution Vienna became the capital ofthe new Austrian Empire French troops occupied Rome again in 1808 and Napoleondeclared that he was seizing the papal States in response Pope Pius the seventhexcommunicated Napoleon French troops took Pope Pius prisoner and exiled himto Savona in Northwest Italy Napoleon abdicated in April 1814 and Pope Piuswas released being welcomed back in Rome as a heroalthough Austria received back its Italian territories the peninsula wasnow ripe for a nationalist unification movement in 1830 a French nun namedCatherine Laboure received a vision of the Blessed Virgin Mary in which she wastold to construct a medal showing on one side an image of Mary standing on aglobe and crushing a serpent beneath her feet with Ray’s shooting out of herhands she is surrounded by the words o Mary conceived without sin pray for uswho have recourse to thee on the other side is a cross and bar surmounting theletter M the Sacred Heart of Jesus and the Immaculate Heart of Mary surroundedby twelve stars the Blessed Virgin Mary promised that all who wear the medalwill receive great Grace’s the Russian Empire had absorbed Poland and Ukrainein the 17th and 18th centuries both countries had large Catholic populationsin November 1831 Poland rebelled against Russian rule Russia crushed therebellion and blamed it on Catholic instigators and undertook harsh measuresto force Catholics in Poland in Ukraine to convert to Russian orthodoxyin 1848 revolutionaries in Rome protesting Austrian occupation of Italyseized control of the city and forced Pope Pius the 9th to flee the city indisguise one year later French troops enteredRome and restored the Pope’s authority over the papal States although theJesuits had been initially welcomed in China they began to experiencepersecution in the 17th century Catholicism was introduced to Korea inthe 18th century by converts from China but in the 19th century the CatholicChurch was persecuted by the Korean government for its prohibition ofancestor worship st.Francis Xavier had brought Catholicism to Japan in the 16thcentury but the church was soon forced underground by the Japanese governmentthe Catholic Church survived underground in Japan for 250 years until Catholicismwas legalized in 1858 in England anglican priest John Henry Newmanconverted to Catholicism in 18-49 in 1850 Pope Pius the 9th reinstituted theCatholic hierarchy in England in 1854 Pope Pius the Knife issued the papalbull ineffable as’ which stated we declare pronounce and define that thedoctrine which asserts of the Blessed Virgin Mary from the first moment of herconception by a singular grace and privilege of Almighty God and in view ofthe merits of Jesus Christ savior of the human race was preserved free from everystain of original sin is a doctrine revealed by God and for this reason mustbe firmly and constantly believed by all the faithfulin 1858 a young peasant girl named bernadette soubiros received visions ofthe Blessed Virgin Mary at a cave in Lewes FranceMary told Bernadette I am the Immaculate Conception confirming the bull of PopePius the ninth four years earlier a spring flowing from the cave has becomethe site of millions of pilgrims each year many of whom have reportedmiraculous cures to physical ailments in the early 19th century Germanphilosopher Heinrich Jacobi argued that the idealist philosophy of Immanuel Kantwhen taken to its logical conclusion resulted in nihilism the absence of anymeaning or value in life or the universe Danish philosopher sren kierkegaardlamented that the uniformity and apathy of the modern world led to a lack ofmeaning purpose or value in life German philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche believedthat scientific advances showing that man is the product of evolution and thatearth has no special place in the universe had exposed Christianity as alie with the result that humans now found themselves in a world withoutmeaning or purpose Nietzsche lamented the world is not asit ought to be and the world as it ought to be does not existwhile Europe’s intellectual elite had all but abandoned Christianity by the19th century the United States saw a frenzy of new religious movements suchas Adventism restoration ISM the holiness movement Mormonismdispensationalism and the watchtower society as the number of divisions anddenominations in Protestantism continued to grow with each passing decade leadersof mainline Protestant denominations sought to find interdenominational unityby placing less emphasis on doctrine they championed the idea that theessential teachings of Christianity are summed up in a few great simple truthsthat are clearly expressed in Scripture and thus it makes little difference towhich particular denomination a person belongs in 1864 to protect the CatholicChurch from the modernist indifferentism that was sweeping through Europe PopePius the 9th published the syllabus of errors which condemned 80 propositionsof modernist philosophical political and religious thought including theseparation of church and state and the notion that every man is free to followthat religion which he believes to be true in 1870 the first Vatican Councildeclared that the Pope is infallible when in the exercise of his officersShepherd and teacher of all Christians in virtue of his supreme apostolicauthority he defines a doctrine concerning faith or morals to be held bythe whole church in 1861 King Victor Emmanuel ii ofpiedmont completed the unification of the italian peninsula as the kingdom ofitaly but rome was still under the temporal rule of the popefinally in 1870 soldiers of the new italian kingdom breached the aurelionwalls and stormed the city Pope Pius the 9th was left prisonerinside the Vatican the 19th century saw a new wave of colonialism in Africa Asiaand Australia that by England France Belgium and Germany each group ofcolonists brought their own denomination of preference to the people theycolonized following the fall of Constantinople to the Ottoman Empire in1453 the patriarch of Constantinople held authority over Christians inEastern Europe and Russia Russia acquired independence fromConstantinople as its own autocephalous Patriarchate in 1589 late in the 19thcentury as Eastern Europe was liberated from the Ottoman Empire the newindependent nation-states demanded independence from Constantinople asautocephalous churches from 1833 to 1951 autocephalous status was claimed bygreece bulgaria serbia bosnia and herzegovina Romania Georgia EstoniaAlbania Poland and Czechoslovakia in the 19th century Spain’s colonies in LatinAmerica and the Pacific won their independence in Wars of revolution inmany colonies the Catholic Church was associated with the Spanish colonizersand became the focus of attack from leaders of the rebellions particularlyin Mexico from 1894 to 1923 the Ottoman Empirecarried out a series of horrific genocides targeting Greek Assyrian andArmenian Christians in his territory at least 450,000 Greek 150,000 Assyrian and1.5 million Armenian Christians were murdered in 1917 three children inFatima Portugal received a series of visions of the Blessed Virgin Mary theBlessed Virgin Mary asked the children to devote themselves to the Holy Trinityand to pray the rosary every day to end World War one and bring peace to theworld over ten thousand pilgrims flocked to the site of the visions and reportedseeing a miraculous movement of the Sun in the sky following the overthrow ofTsar Nicholas ii during World War one the Bolsheviks showed no restraint inpersecuting Christians in the Soviet Unionhundreds of bishops priests monks and nuns in major cities were murderednearly all the country’s monasteries and convents were liquidated and there werewidespread mass executions of monks and nuns throughout the country followingthe Mexican Revolution from 1910 to 1920 the government of Mexico institutedoppressive measures against Catholics which led to the Cristero rebellion from1926 to 1929 even following the negotiated peace settlements the seculargovernment continued its oppressive measures against Catholics between 1926and 1934 at least 40 priests were killed there were four thousand five hundredpriests serving the people before the rebellion but by 1934 there were only334 priests licensed by the government to serve 15 million people in Mexico by1935 seventeen states had no priests at allin 1929 the kingdom of Italy and pope pius xi negotiated the Lateran treatywhich recognized the full sovereignty of the Holy See in the state of VaticanCity in 1924 a young girl in Poland named Maria Faustina received a visionof Jesus Christ she immediately joined the convent as a nun and continued toreceive visions of Jesus over the next decade Jesus instructed her to begin adevotion in the church to the divine mercy in the year 2000 pope john paul iiinstituted the Feast of the Divine Mercy to be celebrated on the first Sundayafter Easter in 1937 Pope Pius the 12th smuggled 300,000copies of the papal decree MIT brain and disorder into Nazi Germany the decreecondemned the rampant racism and idolatry of the state in Nazi GermanyPius took the rare step of writing the decree in German rather than Latin andCatholic priests read the decree in parishes throughout Germany on PalmSunday in 1937 an infuriated Hitler ordered hundreds of Catholics priestsand monks arrested while the Gestapo ransacked Catholic churches JosephGoebbels remarked after the war the church question has to be solved thereis an insoluble opposition between the Christian and a heroic German worldviewdespite numerous requests from Pope Pius the 12th to have Rome declared an openCity during World War two Rome was bombed repeatedly by German American andEnglish air forces after Italy surrendered to the Allies in 1943 Romewas occupied by Nazi Germany hewo flatteryan Irish priest at the Vatican organized an underground network to hide Jews andescaped Allied prisoners from the Nazis when the Nazis learned about herflatteries activities the head of the Gestapo in Rome ordered a white linepainted at the entrance to st.Peter’s Basilica with orders to shoot Ohflattery if he crossed it the United States Army captured Rome on June the4th 1944 nihilism gave way to existentialism following World War twojean-paul Sartre declared that humans have no creator no essence and mustlearn through experience alone and free how to be authentic in a world ofoppressive conformity meanwhile Albert Camus posed the question given that lifeis inherently meaningless what kind of life is preferable to suicideon November the 1st 1950 hope Pius the 12th issued the Apostolic Constitutionwhen if assent is submersed dais we stated by the authority of our LordJesus Christ of the Blessed apostles Peter and Paul and by our own authoritywe pronounced declare and define it to be a divinely revealed dogma that theimmaculate mother of god the ever Virgin Mary having completed the course of herearthly life was assumed body in soul into heavenly glory the 20th century sawthe introduction of more religious movements and denominations in theUnited States such as Pentecostals fundamentalist evangelicals charismaticand the emerging church while mainline Protestant denominations went throughvarious mergers and divisions in the 1960s the Second Vatican Council soughtto reform the Catholic Church in light of a rapidly changing world introducingreforms in liturgy and placing a new emphasis on that humanism in 1964 PopePaul the sixth met patriarch athenagoras the first of Constantinople in Jerusalemthe first such meeting since the Council of Florence in 1439 in 1971 hope Paul the South met more andmore Ignatius jacuz but the third syriac orthodox patriarch of antioch and allthe yeast the first such meeting since before the council of Calca don in theyear 451 in 1973 Coptic Pope Shenouda the third of Alexandria visited PopePaul the sixth in Rome the first such meeting since before the Council ofChalcedon in the year 451 in 1984 patriarch Marv Dinka the fourthof the Church of the East visited Pope John Paul the second in Rome the firstsuch meeting in history in 2017 Pope Francis of Rome met PopeTawadros ii of Alexandria and patriarchbartholomew of constantinople in cairo egypt Pope Francis and Pope Tawadrosagreed for the first time in history that the Catholic and Coptic churcheswould recognize the baptisms of each other’s members you

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