Coal, Steam, and The Industrial Revolution: Crash Course World History #32

Hi, I’m John Green and this is Crash Course on World History. Today we will discuss a series of events that made it possible for you to follow our program. It also made this studio possible. This repository containing the studio is possible. By the way it is a warehouse that stores warehouse materials. That’s right, It is time to talk about the Industrial Revolution. Although they occur in conjunction with the French, American, and Latin American revolutions, Haitianism – between 1750 and 1850 – was indeed the industrial revolution Most revolutionary among them. No way. Each of these revolutions, for example, led to new borders, flags and things like this. We studied more than 15,000 years of history here at Crash Course I’m from the past. Borders and flags have changed a lot, and will continue to change But during all this time, the way we dispose of waste has not changed Or provide drinking water.Most people lived in or near the land where food was provided. With some exceptions, life expectancy has not exceeded 35 and not less than 25. Education was a privilege and it wasn’t really. For centuries we have not developed any weapons Kills more than 20 people at once, or a way to travel other than horseback. For 15,000 years, most people did not own or use any object made abroad This did not change Simon Bolivar and neither did the Declaration of Independence of America. You have electricity? The product of the Industrial Revolution. You have cranberries in February? The product of the Industrial Revolution. You live in a place not a farm? The Industrial Revolution. Driving a car? The Industrial Revolution. Do you get twelve years of education? The Industrial Revolution. Your bed, your antibiotics, Bath seat, contraceptives, tap water every second in your waking and sleep: The Industrial Revolution. [Emblem music] Here is a simple statistic that summarizes the topic: Before the Industrial Revolution, About 80% of the world’s population worked in agriculture to protect themselves and the remaining 20% From hunger. Today, in the United States, less than 1% of people register agriculture as their profession. That is, we have advanced so much that we no longer need to grow flowers. Stan, is this real? I can’t tell whether it’s plastic or digital. what happened? Technology! Here is my definition: The Industrial Revolution was an increase in production resulting from the use of machinery. It is characterized by the use of new energy sources. Although things On the subject of our workshop, the industrial transformation is not capitalism. Although, as we shall see next week, it is linked to modern capitalism. The Industrial Revolution began around 1750 and spread across most of the globe, But it started in Europe, especially Britain. What happened? Lets move to the Thought Bubble. The innovations of the Industrial Revolution were deeply interconnected. For example, Let’s look at the British textile industry: John Kay’s invention of the flying shuttle In 1733 he dramatically increased the speed of knitting, which in turn created a demand On the yarn, which led to inventions such as a spinning wheel and a spinning frame. This was quickly achieved by using water power, until the steam engine came to make the flying shuttle He actually flies in these huge cotton yarn factories. The most successful steam engine was built by Thomas Newcomen Whose name was not invented, to get water out of the mines and because the water was taken out of the mines, There became more coal to run more steam engines, eventually resulting The Newcomen steam engine was developed by James Watt which was named after its unit of measurement University which enabled his engine to provide rail and steamboats As well as more effective cotton coefficient. For the first time I used chemicals other than bilious urine (I wish I was joking) In whitening clothes that people wore, the first was sulfuric acid, Which was massively produced thanks to lead-lined rooms Which would have been impossible had it not been for the production of lead around 1750 in Britain, Thanks to lead foundries that work on coal. These factors combined to provide more yarn that can be sewn and cleaned Faster and cheaper than before, this process eventually leads to the Mughal shirts For $ 18. Now available on Thanks for the thought bubble for this outrageous ad For our beautiful, high quality shirts now available on So the problem here is that industrial transformation is deeply interrelated, It’s really hard to know why it happened in Europe, especially Britain. It is the most controversial debate in the history of the world today. For example, here are some of the European reasons for industrial transformation In Europe first: there is the argument of cultural supremacy that basically claims that Europeans Better and smarter than others.And sometimes it is formulated like this … That Europeans have a superior mentality. By the way, you will never guess where they are Who came with this argument – unless you guessed that they were from Europe. Hence, others claim that Europe alone possessed a culture of science and invention They made these revolutionary techniques possible. Another argument is that institutions exist A free political system that encourages innovation and strong property rights has created incentives for inventors. Finally, people usually infer that Europe’s population is small because the population is small Inventions require employment. Time for open letter? An open letter to the steam engine. But first, let’s see what’s in the secret room It is the Tardis vehicle, the pinnacle of British industrial transformation. Dear steam engine, you know what strange? That youve never made any real improvements. Such a thing that facilitates time travel, it probably works on a steam engine as well. Almost all of the world’s electricity, whether coal or nuclear, is just a steam engine. All this is still just water and heat, and this shows how revolutionary the Industrial Revolution was Everything that has happened since then is a development.Best Wishes John Green. So you may have heard these justifications for industrial transformation in Europe, I probably heard others. The problem with each of these reasons is that whenever you think You arrived for the root cause, it turns out that there is a reason for the root cause quoting Leonardo DiCaprio “We have to go deeper,” said James Cameron and coal miners. But anyway, the problem of these European-justified arguments, Is that it applies to China, India, or both. It is very important to note that in 1800, It was not clear that Europe would become the dominant industrial power in the world For the next hundred years. At that time, China, India and Britain were almost At the same level in terms of industrial production. At first, let’s take a look at China. It is difficult to accept the pretext of European cultural superiority Because China has been recording its history since before Confucius, In addition to the existence of all that bronze, painting and poetry. It is rather difficult to generalize that China was economically less prestigious than Europe, They invented paper currency, and topped the world in the field of exporting everything From silk to Chinese porcelain. Before the Industrial Revolution, population growth was the strongest evidence On economic success, China was the world’s first most populous. I think that answers the question of whether they are digital. It is also difficult to say that China lacked the culture of invention Being invented gunpowder, printing, paper and compass. There was freedom of initiative in China In the Song Dynasty more than anywhere in the world. Some say there can be no free enterprise in China because of its long history In trying to monopolize materials such as salt and metal. And this is true, But when they were trying to enforce these monopolies, their history was failing, So, in many ways, China was qualified for an industrial revolution at least as much as Britain. So why didn’t it happen? Well, the Europeans and the British in particular had two big advantages: First, coal. When you look at the evolution of transport, or communication, Industrial efficiency, or improving the chemical industry, it’s always coal, Because the industrial revolution centered on the use of multiple forms of energy to automate production. England had a huge stock of coal near the surface, This means that it is cheap to extract, so soon it replaced wood for heating, cooking and the like. So the British pushed for more coal. The only problem in coal mining, Apart from being fatal, etc., coal mines were still floating around with water All the time. I think coal mining was a bit damaging The health of the planet as you know. But, because there’s all this motivation to extract coal from the ground, Steam engines were invented to pump water out of the mines.And because the first steam engines Was ineffective, it needed a cheap and abundant source of fuel to operate, No coal, which meant it was more beneficial to the British than anyone else. So steam engines used cheap British coal to keep British coal cheap, And cheap British coal created the opportunity for everything from rail to iron, Like everything else in the Industrial Revolution, he created a positive feedback loop. As she walked on a railway, she needed the railway. For its relatively heavy weight, he needed railroads. Second, there was wages. Britain (and to some extent low countries at least) It had the highest wages in the world at the beginning of the eighteenth century. In 1725, Wages in London were equivalent to 11 grams of silver per day. In Amsterdam it was 9 grams. In Beijing, Venice and Florence were less than four. In Delhi, it was less than two. It is not entirely clear why wages are rising in Britain. There is an argument that says, The Black Plague reduced the population in Europe to narrow the scope of labor markets, But this does not explain low wages in plague-stricken Italy.In essence, high wages Combined with lower fuel prices meant that it was economically efficient for manufacturers to see Machines as a way to reduce production costs. We quote from the historian Robert Allen said: “Wages were high and energy cheap. These prices led to the industrial revolution By giving companies strong motivation to invent capital-substitution techniques Coal and labor. ” Stan, I’m still afraid people will accuse me of bias towards Europe. Of course, others will accuse me of bias against Europe. I am not biased against Europe. I love Europe. I was given many favorite cheeses and skiing And rural Charlie Chaplin, who inspired today’s Danica painting. In fact, the proximity of coal to Britain’s surface cannot be made Cultural excellence. But the issue of wages is a little different because they make it It seems as if only the Europeans were smart enough to pay high wages. But one last thing to consider: India was the largest producer of cotton textiles In the world, although they actually pay the lowest wages in the world. Agriculture in India has been so productive that you can support workers at very little cost. And this, Adding to the rising population means that Indian textile manufacturing can be a huge production Without using machines, so they didn’t need industrial transformation. But more importantly from our point of view, there is a strong argument Remember that Indian cotton production helped drive industrial transformation. The cotton textiles It led the industrial revolution in its infancy, the main reason for Britain’s rush For cotton production is that the demand for them was incredibly high. Were more comfortable than mystics, But it was also cheaper, because cottons can be imported from India at low cost. So, Indian cottons created the market and British manufacturers invested in machinery (And imported the trade secret from India) to increase production so they could compete with India. And that’s one of the ways that has made the European industrial transformation A global phenomenon. To those who enjoy dialectical and cultural debates, Here’s the good news. Next week, we’ll talk about capitalism. Thanks for following. See you later. Crash Course is produced and directed by Stan Muller.Text supervisor Danica Johnson. The program is written by a history teacher at my high school Raoul Meyer and I. We are ably trained by Meredith Danko. And the optics team Thought Bubble. Last week’s phrase last week was “New England Revolution”. If you want to suggest future week phrases or predict the week’s terms, You can do that in the comments, so you can ask questions about today’s video It will be answered by our team of historians. Thanks for watching our program and as we say in my hometown, “Don’t forget to be awesome.” .

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