-Fire crackle soothingly- -Fire crackle, men screaming, and yelling less soothingly- In July 1588 beacons were lit across England to warn of the arrival of the Spanish armada. Elizabeth’s darkest fears had come true. England was at war. Open war at last. It was something that Elizabeth had twisted and turned for twenty years to avoid. Elizabeth hated war because it was so expensive. It was also unbelievable risky. The loss of Calais had destroyed her sister Mary’s reputation. And Elizabeth well knew that a similar unforeseen disaster could undo all her own work. Elizabeth loathed war because as a woman she couldn’t lead her own armies. Instead, she had to give their command to hot-willed men who would disobey her orders and might even turn her own forces against her. -Fire gush sound- Title: Heart of a King The slide into war begun nearly twenty years before. -horn music- By the early 1570s Elizabeth had triumphed over her opponents in England. She had seen off a rebellion and executed the ring leaders. Including her own own cousin, the Duke of Norfolk. There was a fragile peace in England.But Elizabeth was in constant danger. She had powerful enemies abroad headed by the Pope. who like a sixteenth century Ayatollah had signed a fatwa on the Protestant English Queen. “Who soever senders her out of the world with the pious intention of doing God’s service not only does not sin, but gains merit.” Elizabeth had powerful Catholic enemies at home as well. Mary Queen of Scots had been Elizabeth’s prisoner since her desperate flight from Scotland in 1568. Mary had a strong claim to the English throne through her great grandfather Henry the seventh.On her arrive to England Mary identified herself passionately with Catholicism. -foot steps and anticipation music- Mary’s faith set her on a collision course with Elizabeth. Especially, as relations between Catholics and Protestants in Europe were about to explode. -anticipation music intensifies- In Paris, on Saint Bartholomew day the twenty-fourth of August 15, 1572 Catholics began a massacre of their Protestant neighbors. -holy sounding music sung by male singers- Everywhere there were people who fled and others ran after them crying, “kill! Kill!” There was no mercy either for age or for sex. It was in very truth a massacre. The streets were strewn with naked mutilated corpses. The river was covered with them. Sir Francis Walsingham, Elizabeth’s ambassador in Paris, barely escaped with his life. The Queen recalled him to London and gave him a new job masterminding England’s security. Walsingham quickly identified public enemy number one. Nothing is more necessary then that the realm might be delivered off her. If the saw be not sound I feel we shall have a Bartholomew breakfast.Mary was a figurehead for Catholics everywhere who wanted to depose Elizabeth. And Mary knew there could be only one way out of her confinement. I will not leave my prison, save as Queen of England. The St. Bartholomew’s massacre heightened the fear of a bloody Catholic rising in England. It also plunged France into a civil war. Elizabeth relied on France as a counter-balance to the mighty Spanish Empire, which controlled much of Europe including the Netherlands.That is modern day Holland, Belgium, and north eastern France. But although England might fear the Catholic neighbors she couldn’t live without them. Because in the Netherlands was England’s biggest export market. The booming city of Antilles. In 1532 the year before Elizabeth’s birth this magnificent new exchange was built. Antilles was now a combination of the city and Wallstreet and the most important commodity traded was English wool. The English traders held center stage doing their deals here in the middle of the trading floor.As usual money talks and the volume of the London/Antilles trade meant that the Netherlands were usually England’s chief over seas ally. The rulers of the Netherlands in the sixteenth century were the Habsburg. One of them was Philip of Spain who had been married to, Mary Tudor, Elizabeth’s sister. When Mary died Philip tried to keep hold of England by proposing to Elizabeth. But the new Queen refused him. Neither Elizabeth nor her people wanted to be ruled by a foreigner again. The people of the Netherlands didn’t much like Spanish rule either and in 1576 united behind Prince William of Orange. He was horrified by the brutality of Spanish rule and he turned to Elizabeth as a fellow Protestant for help.Elizabeth now proved herself to be a Queen of deception. Instead of intervening directly as her father Henry the eighth might have done Elizabeth preferred to get others to do her dirty work for her. Elizabeth’s policy towards the Netherlands trotted a tight rope. She didn’t wish to be seen giving open help to Philips rebellious subjects because that would break the rules of the royal club to which both she and Philip belonged. Nor on the other hand did she want to see Philip be established a real Empire of the Netherlands. That would enable Philip to resume the persecution of the Protestants. Still worse, it would enable him to turn the Netherlands into a spring board for the invasion of England. SO… every time Philip looked as though he was getting the upper hand Elizabeth threw large amounts of gold at the Dutch rebels to stiffen their resistance. But mighty Spain would not be beaten by a Dutch revolt. And William’s rebellion began to buckle under the force of Spanish arms. *Gun shots and explosions* Elizabeth needed someone else to try and stop Philip. *Gun shots, yelling, and explosions* Enter the Duke of… his mother had put him forward as a husband to Elizabeth.When he was just eighteen she was thirty-nine. But he was putridly puny and and scarred by Smallpox. Elizabeth hadn’t been interested. But six years later he began to intrigue her. The Duke belonged to the French royal family. But as the youngest son he had little chance of inheriting the throne. So he had to look elsewhere for a kingdom of his own. he hoped to find one in the Netherlands If Elizabeth could pull the right strings he would be the perfect pullet to oppose Philip. Elizabeth flourished a diplomatic trump card. Now a bit worn and passed its best but still playable Marriage was on the table again. *non English language* *non English language* His ambition needed money. He began secret correspondence with Elizabeth but his letters didn’t talk of interest rates. Instead, they used the language of love. *non English language* She was his “belle majestea” (beautiful majesty). He was her slave. His declarations combined devotion and passion with just a tasteful hint of eroticism/ .