Overview of the Middle Ages | World History | Khan Academy

Developing up we all have impressions of the middle a while we examine knights in shining armor hassles with moats and towers but when have been the core ages the straightforward reply the middle a while in Europe are the roughly one thousand years from the autumn of the Roman Empire and to be targeted the autumn of the Western Roman Empire the japanese Roman Empire continues on for many of the middle a long time but it surely begins in roughly 476 and it continues on for a thousand years as we get into the 14th and fifteenth centuries and it is really the time interval that connects the sector of Rome Europe for the duration of antiquity and connects it to the Europe that starts offevolved to emerge in the 14th fifteenth and 16th centuries the Europe of the Age of Exploration the Europe of the Renaissance now what we will do on this video is we’ll appear at maps of the various time intervals of the center a long time the middle ages are widely divided into three important sections the early center a long time from the autumn of the Western Roman Empire until in regards to the year a thousand the excessive core ages which was once a high point for the middle a while in Europe which works from about what the yr a thousand to the year 1300 after which the late core a while which will get us to the 15th century and is viewed no longer that fine of a time to live in Europe so let’s simply start with what Europe seem like proper after the autumn of the Western Roman Empire so as you can find right here this map is relating to the time period between 476 when Otto acre or Odoacer takes over Rome and 493 and you’ll discover the eastern Roman Empire remains to be here but the Western Roman Empire is now fragmented amongst many Germanic kingdoms you have the Visigoths you might have the Franks you could have the kingdom of otaku or Odoacer with the fall of Rome we are entering into the early core a long time now the japanese Roman Empire which considers itself the Roman Empire its capital at Constantinople below Justinian has slightly bit of a final hurrah and is capable to recapture the Italian peninsula so it can be in a position to recapture one of the territory that used to be formerly part of the Western Roman Empire one of the most territory in North Africa that you do not see on this map but for probably the most section Western Europe stays beneath the manage of quite a lot of Germanic kingdoms so right here we’ve got speedy forwarded to the year 814 which would be proper around here on our timeline and you will find a primary event has befell both on the map or on this timeline you could have Charlemagne king of the Franks topped Holy Roman Emperor on the map you will see that Charlemagne’s empire correct over right here he’s conquered northern Italy a lot of what we recollect contemporary-day France so much of what we remember state-of-the-art-day Germany Switzerland into the Netherlands and Belgium Charlemagne is really one of the defining figures of the middle ages and principally the early center a while as one can find he is capable to unify a lot of Western Europe a lot of Rd ideas about Kings and castles and knights to emerge across the time of Charlemagne this thought of being a holy roman emperor when you consider that he’s capable to provide safety to the Pope the Pope says hi there i’ll say that you are carrying on with on the legacy of the Roman Empire now as we’ll see and we quilt in much more element in different movies the holy the title of Holy Roman Emperor emperor of the Romans does no longer continue on with Charlemagne’s descendants but when you get to 962 Otto who’s a German King is crowned Holy Roman Emperor again and also you continue to have Holy Roman emperors all the approach except 1806 now an additional primary characteristic of the early center ages and you will see that it on this map is that Islam in the seventh and eighth centuries it comes out of Arabia and is equipped to vanquish much of the core East Persia North Africa which you do not see on this map and far of what we don’t forget in these days to be today’s day Spain and you’ll find in the event you see the Caliphate of Cordoba correct over here you see the abbasids right here within the east who additionally controlled much of North Africa now let’s rapid-ahead to the high core a long time so here we are within the 12 months 1135 on our timeline that would be right about Lachesis 1100 that may be 1150 eleven:35 would put us right round here and you might already see some interesting things on this map the Holy Roman Empire below Charlemagne is now fragmented the Western 1/3 is now the kingdom of France the japanese two-thirds are still regarded the Roman Germanic Empire or the Holy Roman Empire and although it appears quite unified in this map over distinctive intervals of time it can be fairly a bunch of fragmented Germanic kingdoms nominally underneath this Holy Roman Empire many times it can be a little bit more unified below a far better Holy Roman Emperor now the opposite matters that you just see and we noticed it on the last map is that the Byzantine Empire is continuing to lose territory and you’ll find the Muslim empires in this case is the Seljuk Turks are capable to take much more territory now one of the things that has occurred by the point we seem at this map and it is no longer clear via looking on the map is that you’ve got in 1054 the nice schism between the Latin Church centered at Rome and the jap Greeks church established at Constantinople and we have a whole series of videos on that and the entire reasons that ended in it but as we get to the time of this map one of the crucial things that the high core ages is most known for the excellent Schism or the east-west schism is one in every of them the gives them between what ultimately turns into the Roman Catholic Church and the eastern Orthodox Church but what the excessive middle a while are also identified for are the Crusades as already mentioned you see how the Seljuk Turks are ready to take so much of Anatolia so much of the peninsula from the Byzantine Empire and the West decides to ship what is going to ultimately be referred to as Crusaders to support regain land from the Muslims and so that’s where you see the Crusades commencing in 1096 on the very finish of the eleventh century you’ll find the multiple Crusades that occur over roughly the subsequent 200 years and the Crusaders had been seeking to reclaim land from the Muslims and especially the Holy Land much of which is beneath the map where you can not particularly see it correct over right here but it surely turns out that once they are capable to reclaim some of that land they don’t give it again to the Byzantines they established what are often called Crusader kingdoms and you can see a few of them correct over right here in this bluish color so as soon as again you had this east-west schism and the Crusades are further increasing the division between East and West and that relatively becomes gigantic in 1204 when the Crusaders themselves sack Constantinople take Constantinople from the Byzantines so that’s in some ways the factor of no return the Byzantines are eventually equipped to take Constantinople back however that is fairly the starting of the end for the Byzantine Empire now despite the fact that the high middle ages are recognized for this anxiety between East and West the excellent Schism even though it’s recognized for the Crusades most of which were particularly unsuccessful regardless of being very very very bloody for the Crusaders the high core a while were viewed a excessive point for the center a long time farming technology coupled with better climate honestly greatly improved agricultural productivity presently but then roughly in the 12 months 1300 historians recollect ourselves relocating into the late center ages so one can find right here in this map by way of the late center a long time Europe is beginning to resemble the Europe that we know in later durations once we get into the Renaissance and the Age of Exploration by means of this point so much of the Iberian Peninsula has been reclaimed from Muslim rule even though you continue to have Muslim rule in Granada many of the Byzantine Empire has now been taken over by the Ottomans save Constantinople Constantinople finally Falls in 1453 this map right over right here is roughly what europe look like in the 14th century so this period proper over here Constantinople falls in 1453 ending the Byzantine Empire formally and what the late core a long time is most identified for as being no longer that first-rate of a time to live in Europe in 1347 you might have the Black demise which by using some estimates kills 50 million persons in Europe which is roughly 60% of the population at the time it is usually a time of famine the climate cycles worsen and even before the black demise you have a big famine taking place in the 14th century one can find correct over here between 1337 and 1453 you have got the Hundred Years struggle between france and england which lasts over 100 years once again not a exceptional time to are living in specifically western europe but as we get into the end of the 15th and certainly into the sixteenth century historians recollect that to be the tip of the center a long time and we start entering the Age of Exploration and the Renaissance which we can talk about in future movies

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